Bloods: CRP 0. Radiology: Day 2 scan: normal. Not repeated. Case 3: 3 year old male with coryza, productive cough, sore throat and fever after 3 days. Radiology: Day 9 CT showed patchy ground-glass opacities. Repeat CT on day 16 had normalised after treatment antiviral, anti-infective, immunoglobulin.
Case 4: 4 year old asymptomatic male. Radiology: Day 2 CT chest showed patchy ground-glass opacities. Repeat CT on day 7 had normalised after treatment montelukast, immunoglobulin. J Infect. This study is a review of CT imaging findings in children and pregnant women in a hospital in the Hubei Province.
The bottom line is that pulmonary CT changes in children were mild, with either focal ground glass opacification or focal consolidation. Although CT has been reported as a useful screening tool in adults with suspected COVID infection, the CT changes of the four children were non-specific; the authors conclude that exposure history and clinical symptoms are more helpful for screening in swab-negative children than CT. Six of the 16 laboratory-confirmed pregnant women and 10 of the 25 clinically diagnosed pregnant women delivered during the study period.
Case 1: 5 year old female with fever, cough and fatigue. No lymphadenopathy. Bloods: low WCC with raised lymphocytes and decreased neutrophil ratio. Normal CRP. CT: normal. Follow-up CT 9 days later remained normal. Case 2: 11 month old male with fever and cough. No lymphadenopathy Bloods: normal WCC with raised lymphocyte count and decreased neutrophil ratio. CT chest: single consolidation without peripheral predominance unlike reported findings in adults.
Case 3: 9 year old female with fever but no cough. Bloods: normal WCC, low lymphocytes and normal neutrophil ratio. CT chest: single ground glass opacity without peripheral predominance unlike reported findings in adults. Case 4: 2 month old male with cough but no fever.
This infant was coinfected with RSV. Bloods: normal WCC with normal lymphocytes and normal neutrophil ratio. CRP raised does not say how high. CT chest: multiple focal consolidations and pleural effusion.
Del Barba, P. Canarutto, E. Sala, G. Frontino, M. Guarneri, C. Camesasca, C. Baldoli, A. Esposito and G. Barera First single case report of an infant with biochemical and echocardiographic evidence of mild cardiac involvement due to SARS-CoV-2 infection.
Neither the centre nor the country is identified but is likely to be in Italy. Pregnancy had been unremarkable. No delivery details given. Baby was formula fed. He presented with a fever of CXR showed increased bronchovascular markings but no parenchymal changes CT not done. A resting heart rate of bpm and a transient peak rate of bpm were the only cardiac signs serial ECGs and 24hr recording. Follow up echo 3 days after the first confirmed a 2mm effusion. He required no treatment and was discharged after 14 days.
Swabs were -ve 21 and 22 days after presentation. Clinical Features: 2 year old previously healthy male in contact with Covid19, hospitalized with nausea, vomiting and lethargy. On Day 2 of admission deteriorated with Respiratory distress, filiform pulse and blood pressure was not measurable.
There was hepatomegaly. During ECMO biopsy of myocardium was taken. Radiology: Initial CXR — bilateral interstitial infiltrates. Day 2: CXR Cardiomegaly with pleural effusion. ECHO: Severe heart failure. Bloods : Initial bloods negative for inflammatory markers but Troponin was elevated 30 times normal on Day 2. Trogen, B. Gonzalez and G.
Shust No neck stiffness, headache, photophobia or respiratory symptoms. His cardiovascular status remained labile after initial fluid resuscitation and he was admitted to PICU. CXR: low lung volumes, normal cardiothymic silhouette and mild, hazy ground glass opacities at the lower lobes bilaterally. Required 2 days of oxygen via NC. No other anti-inflammatories or IVIg given. Initially started on hydroxychloroquine which was stopped on day 3 when serial ECG demonstrated prolonged QTc interval not present initially.
However, tissue Doppler imaging signals of the mitral valve annulus were still abnormally diminished with low global longitudinal strain rate, consistent with residual myocardial dysfunction. Valente, P. Iarossi, M. Federici, et al. Ocular manifestations and viral shedding in tears of pediatric patients with coronavirus disease a preliminary report. J aapos. Median duration of symptoms was 8 days range days. Xu, Y, Li X.
Zhu, B. Nat Med Their ages ranged from 2 months to 15 years. They made note that rectal swabs were frequently positive and that these swabs were positive for a longer duration than nasal swabs. The authors suggest on this basis that faecal-oral transmission may be possible, however this is very uncertain and will require further research to elucidate.
Yuan, C. Zhu, Y. Yang, X. Cai, F. Xiang, H. Wu, C. Yao, Y. Xiang and H. Xiao All children were tested using throat swabs TS ; a subset of were also tested using anal swabs AS. Changes in viral load in both throat and anal swabs were monitored in 13 patients.
Zhao, W. Wang, Y. Tang, W. Zhao, Y. Fan, G. Liu, R. Chen, R. Song, W. Zhou, Y. Liu and F. Zhang In this study from Beijing, China, serial nasopharyngeal swabs were performed on children discharged between January 21st and April 18th following hospital admission with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection.
Follow up swabs were performed fortnightly following discharge; the authors report on children with subsequent positive RT-PCR on follow up. In total 14 children were followed, 7 of whom had a subsequent positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR result, none of whom had significant symptoms at the time one with a temperature of There were no significant clinical or laboratory differences between the group with subsequent positive tests compared with those who remained negative.
A pre-print, the information should be treated again with caution until it has undergone peer review. The primary point made in the paper is that whilst respiratory swabs were negative within 2 weeks after children became afebrile, stool remained positive for over 4 weeks. A study of 35 children age range 18 days to Whole genome sequencing was undertaken on Covid samples. There was an association between disease severity and viral load. There was limited variation in the viral genome though a calculated evolutionary rate was like other RNA viruses.
No correlation was identified between disease severity and genetic variation. Zachariah, P. Halabi, C. Johnson, S. Whitter, J. Sepulveda and D. Green Infants were tested earlier on average 2 vs 3.
In this small hospital-based study symptomatic infants appear were found to have higher viral loads and milder disease compared with older children. This is in contrast to data from some adult studies where a higher viral load correlated with more severe illness. Further studies examining SARS-CoV-2 viral load dynamics and correlation with clinical course in children are required to better understand potential variation between different age groups.
Ducou Le Pointe, S. Allali, A. Romain, J. Youn, J. Taytard, N. Nathan and H. Corvol The authors of this case study are based at two hospitals in Paris; in this correspondence they describe the treatment of a 16 year old girl with homozygous sickle cell disease SCD admitted to ICU with acute chest syndrome ACS and pulmonary emboli complicating COVID pneumonia, in particular the use of Tocilizumab, a humanised anti-IL-6 monoclonal antibody usual indications include use as immunosuppressant therapy in rheumatoid arthritis and giant cell arteritis in adults and juvenile idiopathic arthritis in children.
At 11 years of age she was commenced on daily hydroxyurea with resolution of vaso-occlusive events. She had no history of ACS or pulmonary hypertension; respiratory function and chest radiography were previously normal. The authors report rapid clinical improvement after Tocilizumab with repeat CTPA 5 days later showing complete resolution of pulmonary emboli and consolidation on the right and decrease on the left.
She was discharged from hospital 11 days after admission to continue oral anticoagulation for 6 weeks. Pre-publication version. A year-old female patient was admitted for management of ITP after presenting with a petechial rash. She did not have a family history of haematological or autoimmune conditions, any medical problems or medications.
Clinical features: Initial illness 3 weeks prior to ED presentation : fever, non-productive cough. Presentation to ED: petechial rash spreading from the legs to chest and neck, oral wet purpura, ecchymoses in the popliteal regions and shins.
Bloods: At presentation: WCC 3. ANA borderline positive titers in a speckled pattern which was considered not significant. At 2 week follow up: WCC 6. Treatments: Intravenous immunoglobulin, paracetamol, and antihistamine to manage ITP. Outcomes: Discharge from hospital after 1 day. Rash and oral lesions improved after 48 hours. Side effects were noted due to IVIG including headache, vomiting, abdominal pain.
At 2 week follow up platelet count was maintained, white cell count normalised and a mild transaminitis was noted. Wu, H. Zhu, C. Yao, W. Luo, X. Shen, J. Wang, J. Shao and Y.
Xiang In this retrospective case series from Wuhan, China, the clinical and immunological characteristics of children admitted to hospital with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection are examined.
Details are provided for the children with mild or moderate disease. The median age was 84 months IQR Lymphopenia was present in only 4. Elevation in CRP Liver transaminases and LDH were significantly higher in moderate versus mild cases but the vast majority of levels fell within normal range.
No deaths occurred amongst mild and moderate cases and all patients were discharged. In this large case series of children with mild or moderated SARS-CoV-2 infection, laboratory measures of inflammation were largely normal. The authors postulate that the relative preservation of CD4 T-cells and the higher levels of IL compared with adults with severe COVID may indicate these as important components of a protective immune response.
Severe neutropenia in infants with severe acute respiratory syndrome caused by the novel coronavirus infection. Clinical Features: The two female infants, aged 23 days and 39 days were admitted with mild respiratory symptoms and low grade fever. Nasopharyngeal swans were positive for Covid There was no clinical deterioration in their condition during admission. Haematology: leukocytes and neutrophils normal on admission. At 5 days neutrophil counts fell to 0. Subsequently both improved.
In the report cases it was not associated with any change in clinical state. The authors suggest consideration of performing FBCs 5 to 7 days into the illness to identify neutropenia.
It requires further studies to see if these findings are replicated and whether they are clinically significant. The severity of the neutropenia could be age dependent reflecting bone marrow maturity as one patient was in the neonatal range and the other just beyond it.
Zhang, Y. Chen, et al All had a mild course of illness. CT imaging was abnormal in 10 of 12 with patchy ground glass opacity the most common finding. Lymphopenia was present in 2 children. Aside from a lower CRP in children mean The clinical details of this series of patients from Wuhan, previously described elsewhere, are compared with those of those of children with SARS-CoV It is a retrospective one reviewing the clinical history, radiology and laboratory results of 57children under 5, with confirmed pneumonia on CT or radiography within 72 hours of admission, with COVID diagnosed by detecting SARS-CoV-2 in throat swabs.
The comparison group was 59 children aged under 5 who were admitted with influenza A pneumonia. Influenza A was diagnosed by direct immunofluorescence assay. The 57 COVID pneumonia children were consecutively admitted between 28th January and 11th March ; the 59 influenza A pneumonia children were consecutively admitted between 14th December and 30th February ?
The median age of the Influenza A patients was There was slightly higher proportion of males in each group Clinical features: 31 Dyspnoea occurred in only 2 3. Gastrointestinal symptoms occurred in 8 Haematology investigations showed COVID patients had significantly lower levels of leukocytes and neutrophils but significantly higher lymphocyte levels compared with influenza A patients 7.
There were no significant routine biochemistry differences between the two groups except potassium which was significantly lower in the COVID group. Conclusion: The authors concluded that children under 5 with COVID pneumonia compared to children with influenza A pneumonia showed milder clinical symptoms and a significantly increased lymphocytosis with a more prevalent ground glass CT chest appearance compared to influenza A pneumonia children under 5.
The influenza A patients were not typed and came from a different but overlapping time period during the winter months. Comorbidities were also not mentioned in either group. Lu, Y. Li, W. Deng, M. Liu, Y. He, L. Huang, M. Lv, J. Li and H. Du Inclusion criteria: throat or nasopharyngeal swabs RT-PCR SARS-CoV-2 positive and patient discharged from hospital after recovery an initial cohort of children was reduced to after exclusion of 2 critical cases and 15 children in whom the onset of disease could not be accurately determined.
This definition of duration of viral shedding, with starting point presumably in most cases a retrospective parent-reported start of symptoms or exposure to an infectious contact, and end point two negative swabs leading to discharge from hospital, makes interpreting the duration figures problematic. Viral shedding in urine and faeces was not measured. Lymphocyte ranges not specified. Median duration of hospital stay was 10 days IQR Xiao, Z.
Xie, W. Guo, Z. Luo, J. Liao, F. Wen, Q. Zhou, L. Han and T. Zheng Although all ages are affected by COVID, this paper makes it clear that the number of infected children is tiny compared to those in adults. The findings regarding children are more difficult to interpret due to small case numbers and therefore large confidence intervals, but it appears that 6 to 20 year olds may have a longer incubation period than young adults aged 20 to The results for year olds are fairly inconclusive.
The authors then examine incubation in relation to travel history, finding that those who were affected by local community spread had longer incubation periods than those who had contracted the virus directly in Wuhan. They conclude that the virulence of the virus may decrease with intergenerational transmission, but that more work is needed. Zhang, B. Dong, L.
Zhang, Q. Zhong, Y. Zou and S. All three had a subsequent negative throat swab within approximately 7 days, and fully recovered, however days later all three had rectal swabs which were positive. These findings raise the question of whether apparently well COVID patients continue to carry and possibly shed the virus.
If this was found to be the case in larger and more comprehensive studies, there may be an argument for introduction of strategies to increase avoidance of transmission via the faecal-oral route.
Nathan, N. Prevost and H. This correspondence in the Lancet describes the clinical features of 5 infants with COVID who were admitted to a Paris hospital during the first week after imposed population quarantine in France from 17 th March At this time at Trousseau Hospital, children needing admission with fever or respiratory symptoms or both were admitted to a dedicated SARS-CoV-2 infection unit: during this week 14 infants under the age of 3 months were admitted and of these 5 out of 14 were confirmed SARS-CoV-2 positive on nasopharyngeal swabs.
All of their parents had mild signs of viral infection including fever, cough, rhinitis , which could have been indicative of undiagnosed COVID The infants were followed up for 2 weeks post-discharge with a daily phone call from a paediatrician using a standardised questionnaire. Wu, Q. Xing, L. Shi, W. Li, Y. Gao, S. Pan, Y. Wang, W. Wang and Q.
Xing This retrospective study from 2 hospitals in China examines the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of 74 children with confirmed SARS CoV-2 infection. Consistent with other studies, the majority of children experienced a mild course of illness with only one severe case requiring non-invasive ventilation.
All recovered. Of those tested for other respiratory pathogens 19 of 34 had co-infection. Mycoplasma pneumoniae 16 and RSV 3 were the most common pathogens.
It is not clear how these pathogens were identified. There was no evidence of transmission from children to others. This data is consistent with larger paediatrics studies demonstrating a milder course of COVID in children compared with adults. Notably co-infection was not uncommon, illustrating that the presence of another respiratory pathogen should not preclude SARS-CoV-2 testing in children. Published online April 22, This is a paper from New York, USA, looking at the presenting characteristics, comorbidities, and outcomes of patients who were hospitalized with Covid All patients who were sufficiently medically ill to require hospital admission with confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection by positive result on PCR testing of an NPA were included.
The median age of patients was 63 years IQR , There were only 59 patients under 10yo, and 15 patients between years of age in this study. At presentations, The majority of patients white cell count and differentials were within normal range. The mean white blood cell count was 7 IQR 5.
Neutrophil count 5. Most patients had a raised ferritin, the mean result was IQR , with being considered normal range.
The most common comorbidities were hypertension At the study end point patients had been discharged or had died during hospitalisation. Of these At the end point of the study of those patients who had received mechanical ventilation 3. There were no deaths in the 34 patients under 18 age group out of those who had reached discharge end point.
There were still 25 patients under 20 years hospitalised at the time of the paper. Of the patients who died, those with diabetes were more likely to have received mechanical ventilation or care in the ICU compared to those who did not have diabetes.
Interestingly of those who died, those with hypertension were less likely to have received invasive mechanical ventilation than those without hypertension.
As most patients were still in the hospital at the endo point of the study The researchers point out that as these patients complete their hospital course, reported mortality rates will decline.
This study was slightly limited by the fact that the data was collected from the electronic heath record database and not the medical notes, from which a greater level of detail may have been established, however it was using this method that allowed for such a large number of patients to have been included and reviewed over a relatively short space of time.
It is also limited by the fact that the study population only included patients from within the New York metropolitan area which may underrepresent some ethnic minorities.
Published online May 11, Most patients presented with respiratory symptoms, but there were other presentations — three with DKA, and one with vaso-occlusive crisis sickle cell. These were used as single agents or in combination with other therapies. The overall mortality rate was 4. This study reinforces what is known about the decreased burden of disease from COVID in children compared with adults.
Critically ill children had a less severe course of illness and better hospital outcomes than in adults. Children commonly had medically complex comorbidities.
Overall the mortality is much lower in children 4. This is a report of case studies during the COVID pandemic in Italy of children whose presentations were thought to have been delayed due to parental fears of coming to the hospital. During this period, in the week of March 23rd to 27th 12 children are identified whose parents reported avoiding accessing hospital due to concerns over SARS-CoV-2 infection.
This case series highlights the concerns of many paediatricians that more deaths will be seen in children from collateral damage born from the COVID response, than will die of COVID Delayed presentations is a major concern around the world currently, and whilst these cases certainly raise concerns, evidence is needed to ascertain the true presence and extent of this problem.
Fill Malfertheiner, M. Kabesch, H. Ambrosch and S. Wellmann This letter to the editor in Pediatric Allergy and Immunology presents data on 61 deliveries where there had been varying degrees of unprotected parental contact with SARS-CoVinfected midwives, nurses and doctors during the first week precontainment of a COVID outbreak affecting 36 staff members in a large maternity and perinatal centre in Bavaria, Germany.
The index case was a midwife returning from holiday in Ischgl, Austria on 8 March , who became unwell during a nightshift on 9 March at Regensburg University Hospital obstetric clinic; the first positive SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR test result was received on 15 March and at that point contact tracing, testing and containment measures were introduced.
Serum and breast milk were also tested using a different antibody assay to verify antibody responses. The authors note in their paper of 15 May that IgM antibody testing would have been useful, but that validated and certified IgM tests were not available to them at that time. The authors state that antepartum infections can be excluded and that any neonatal infections probably occurred via postnatal horizontal transmission in the family setting.
Details of treatment are not supplied, but symptoms resolved for all 3 within a few days. None of the 3 SARS-CoV-2 PCR positive neonates nor the uninfected neonates had elevated or even borderline antibodies [note that there is some minor disparity between results summarised in the text and the detailed figure showing results in individual families]. World J Pediatr. This is a review of two confirmed paediatric cases of COVID both from oropharyngeal swabs from two family clusters with recent travel to Wuhan.
One child presented with fever and the other with diarrhoea. Case one: year-old boy presenting with a one-day history of fever.
Clinical features: Temperature Normal lung auscultation. Laboratory findings: mildly elevated white cell count at Radiological findings: normal unenhanced CT chest.
Outcome: Symptomatic treatment. Symptoms disappeared after two days. Case two: 9-year-old boy presented with mild diarrhoea but no cough and no fever. Normal examination. Laboratory findings: normal white cell count and normal CRP. Treated with oral probiotic and symptoms disappeared after 2 days.
His mother presented with fever and cough with bilateral peripheral ground glass opacifications on CT chest. This letter to the editor describes a case series from Tongji hospital in Wuhan, China, taken from a cohort of hospitalized children between January 7th and 15th Of the 6 patients, age range years. Published online February 14, This is a case series of, from Dec 8 to Feb 6 , from China of 9 infants — all of whom had been hospitalised.
There were no severe complications or ICU admissions. The age range is from 3 months to 11 years. None had comorbidities. There were no severe cases. Clinical features: The assumed incubation period time from exposure to index case to developing symptoms was between 2 — 10 days, but median and mode 7 days.
CRP ranged from 0. Stool shedding was prolonged, over 30 days in one patient. No urine was positive, and no serum positive. There is a lot of clinical data in the paper but it is not broken down by age, so we cannot make any inference on behalf of the paediatric patients. This was a case report of a single 6-month-old with a positive nasopharyngeal swab until D16 of admission to hospital. There had been household transmission.
Shouldn't we honor Stephens wishes, but instead of waiting for him to die and put it on his gravestone, we should type his name on Wikipedia as Stephen John 'My Bottom is a Treasure House' Fry, as per his request. Why is there no mention of the Blasphemy Debate here? In recent days Fry has become a more prominent critic of religion and the Blasphemy Debate is a good source to base a possible section on Fry's stance on religion.
Also worth noting is his appearance on Channel 4's "history of the bible" in which he argues that the ten commandments are bad for society. Perhaps the fact that he remains a popular 'national treasure' in Britian whilst being so much against religion is worthy of mention as well.
I agree. That is important. Is there a transcript? Yorkshirelad6 talk , 29 March UTC. This was recently reversed as unsourced. The Independent. Fry's own website "The New Adventures Of In the past he has done this to write novels, or to concentrate on specific projects.
His self imposed silence was broken at the start of April by the launch of Apple's new iPad device. Fry thought that he was born from a generation which was considered "Post-Punk", in which his manner and way of speaking would have been considered as "shoving someone's face in dirt" . Ciaran94 talk , 22 April UTC. The best thing that could have happened to me, both in career terms and emotionally.
He is absolutely my best friend. People sometimes call me a Renaissance man, but I'm not and Hugh is. He's a natural athlete. He's a gifted musician. He is clever, perceptive, has natural charisma. Sometimes it is thought that I'm the loud mouth and the dominant one, but we have been an equal partnership. And we have not been jealous of each other — I'm genuinely thrilled when good things happen for him.
And I'm particularly thrilled by the way his acting career is going. Not done. Can someone fix this, please? The first picture of Fry has a caption containing a link to the GNU Project , which seems very improbable. Fry is not a computer scientist or software developer, as far as I can tell. I tried to alter the pipe to link to the GNU disambiguation page, but I have not succeeded yet. Perhaps someone who knows how can help. Ideally, the link should point to one of the pages the disambig page links to—possibly, Good News Unlimited?
Donfbreed talk , 11 June UTC. This article is one of a number selected for the early stage of the trial of the Wikipedia:Pending Changes system on the English language Wikipedia. Please update the Queue page as appropriate. Note that I am not involved in this project any much more than any other editor, just posting these notes since it is quite a big change, potentially. The Twitter character is erudite like him and has a sense of humour like him, and we all know what a Twitter junkie Fry is so has he created a comic alter ego on it?
Does he have any alternative accounts on Twitter that are known about? Stephen Fry's domestic partnet was born in If they started their relationship in as stated in the bio info sidebar , he would have been 11 years old! I was bold, and removed this on the grounds that it is not a neutral, disinterested point of view suitable for an article about a living person:. However, there has also been criticism, one journalist describing him as a stupid person's idea of what an intelligent person looks like.
The journalist doesn't like the look of him? I don't think this provides the balance that was being looked for. Trishm talk , 16 August UTC. Since the Article page is semi-protected and I've not met the contribution conditions I'm not able to make any edits to the article. An established contributor is welcome to add it to the article in some way. If you read the description on the flickr collection you will read how the photos were taken.
Thanks to the kind person that included my photo in the articles Eyeeffdee talk , 28 August UTC. We can argue about citation style all night; but it's certainly credible - look in the OED. Ok then, our obscure word loving friend, please explain how this controvesy centres around Auschwitz? When in fact most controversy was caused by what he said about Poland in the sense of them harbouring anti-semitism, nationalism etc.
Fry has repeatedly expressed his rejection of religion, though he says he prefers to call himself a humanist rather than an atheist. He appears sourced on Wikipedia's own List of atheists film, radio, television and theater. There are many videos of him expressing these views, though there is a question of defining sourcing. There does not seem to be any real doubt about this.
The citations used on the List page are: "I knew I couldn't believe in God, because I was fundamentally Hellenic in my outlook. Moab is my washpot. Arrow books. In a heartbeat', The Spectator, 9 May , Pg.
Stephen revealed in the Home and Houses episode of QI that he's given up smoking. While I am willing add this fact, it seems incomplete without know precisely when he stopped. Will it be fine to add this fact anyway? Just wanted to point out that the health section needs scrubbing for both irrelevancy and structure His religion is marked as "None Atheist " but it can't be both "none" and "atheist". Perhaps it should be changed to non-theist?
Are there any references? That's what I came here to learn Fry is very much "out" about his close friendship with Steven Webb. There has been no denial that they are an item, widely reported in the press. As the pair have been photographed together at several social events, their "friendship" should at least be acknowledged and not doctored out of the respective entries as some keep doing.
If they were not "out" they would not be out together as a couple. I don't mind replacing the old relationship, it was long and well reported, I just though as they were not married and is over it had little value in the infobox, but no worries. As for the daily mail claimed new lover Off2riorob talk , 30 November UTC. It is now well beyond speculation that Fry and Steven Webb are partners. They appeared together as such at the Baftas and have done so for many months now.
So stop editing out this fact, it's beyond dispute and has not been denied by either party. Fry's partner is now the actor Steven Webb with whom he has appeared at a number of recent public events. Even if that is true, it still needs to be sourced. Creation talk , 15 February UTC. If there is more than one editor who agrees that a better source is needed, to me at least that a different source should be used.
No one is against adding that information. But Fry has already had problems with the pitfalls of Twitter so probably he would not discuss it there, so Twitter is no more a reliable "source" than a newspaper article.
The public outings are the "statement" and now that they have appeared socially together at major arts events, this says more than a social media posting which is not a "source".
He probably does not Tweet on this to avoid spoiling the relationship with obsessive Tweeting after the previous break-up. And again, I have only suggested they are acknowledged as social "partners", nothing more.
This:  states they are indeed "partners". Has Fry Tweeted to contradict this source? Parentheses following a reference to The Liar describe it as a novel, which I know to be untrue. The article on the novel categorizes it as a novel which seems plausible.
I lack the resources to do extensive research or even to edit the article at the moment it's a telephone about half the size of a chocolate bar but this error definitely needs to be fixed.
The article is half-locked so I cannot edit. Sverri talk , 14 June UTC. So, over at Wim Kok they are placing honorary degrees under Alma Mater, this would clean things up a lot. But I don't know if Dr. It might be nice to have a seperate paragraph for the charities he supports.
An outline for a paragraph could be:. Don't panic ; a discussion will now take place over on Commons about whether to remove the file. This gives you an opportunity to contest the deletion, although please review Commons guidelines before doing so. Features in recording performing as Major-Duomo.
Narrates Ocean Giants documentary series. This is is in his book "The Fry Chronicles" Why is information about his recent television series, "Planet Word", not staying in the article? Is it because this page has been semi-protected? People could also read about the programme in copies of the Radio Times or other television guides that they might have.
If we really do need to have a source for this, I hope that the above website, coupled with references to the "Radio Times" appropriate issues , will be sufficient. Well, I think that the information should certainly be in about this series now. In the last edition of this series, Jimmy Wales was on and mention was made of Wikipedia! Do you think this section might be better in the QI article?
It probably belongs here too, but it seems odd to me that the information is in this article but not the other, considering there were other people involved. There were the QI researchers who originally wrote the "unluckiest man in the world" question and the guests who made jokes about it though it doesn't say who they were.
It also seems odd that the section calls them the "other guests", Fry isn't a guest, he's the presenter. It seems we at least are in agreement. Any other users around to comment on this? I have removed the text for now, but I dislike acting on the consensus of two. Right, I've said this before with regard to other articles and it's not come to much, but I'm going to have a crack at getting the Stephen Fry article up to at least Good Article standard.
He's a pretty major figure in the UK at least and his popularity, occasionally controversial nature, and activity in so many fields appears to have attracted a somewhat scattergun input to the article, with drive-by editors dropping in individual bits of trivia, resulting in a lot of cruft and not much structure.
I think it's a bit unruly and out of control at the minute. Is there any way some of this info could be migrated to other sections?
Could do with a trim I think. Kaleeyed talk , 24 January UTC. Am I the only one not nauseated by this over-long eulogy? One of the most noticeable features of Fry is his nose; is there any info on what happened t make it appear so 'distinguished'? Kitbag talk , 29 December UTC. He intended on one day getting it fixed, but feared that it wouldn't make much of a difference in his appearance.
Uses in  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  , for starters. Need I go on? Now can we please delete this ridiculous misattribution? Softlavender talk , 27 May UTC.
In the Television section, Fry's work in Pocoyo is listed under the subsection Drama , which doesn't fit the series' spirit. Should it be listed in subsection Comedy or in a new subsection?
Is this worth making as an addition? Screencaps are available on Google Image search Deepshark talk , 26 November UTC. Not something necessarily worth mentioning in the article, but it would be great if we would be able to update the portrait picture -- Vera talk , 10 December UTC. Where is the 'mild parody' in this sketch. I will watch it but on first reading I can't seem to recall a similarity.
Please forgive me if I am overlooking an obvious point. Probably worth putting in. Hammerfrog talk , 5 June UTC. Link Nightingale House — home in San Francisco. Booth's first psychologist in the series after Booth had shot a clown stereo box on the top of an ice cream truck. I had always been under the impression that Stephen Fry was graduated with a First.
The two citations in the article mention that his degree is in English Literature but not the honours classification. Ziyingjiang talk , 17 December UTC. Is Fry now an atheist or an agnostic?
Martinevans talk , 3 March UTC. I've recently brought up the subject of this article elsewhere and a half dozen or so of us agree that this article is far below par for such an esteemed fellow.
Especially given the traffic this gets and news reports mentioning Fry's wikipedia article and that the great man himself pops in here occasionally.
He deserves a high quality article in which wikipedia can be proud of when people visit the page. We're all currently busy right now, but I just want anybody who watches this page to know that some of us intend working on a new article in a sandbox within the next few weeks.
If there is anything you object to or would like to discuss please do so now. Blofeld , 4 February UTC. The article has been edited to include a very offensive homophobic statement at the beginning of the article. Please remove this ASAP Thus, it does not belong in this article.
He has also narrated the game The Stanley Parable , as the man who leads the main character Stanley through his office building, to try and discover where his colleagues have gone. I have just added archive links to 8 external links on Stephen Fry. Please take a moment to review my edit. I made the following changes:. When you have finished reviewing my changes, please set the checked parameter below to true to let others know.
As of February , "External links modified" talk page sections are no longer generated or monitored by InternetArchiveBot. No special action is required regarding these talk page notices, other than regular verification using the archive tool instructions below.
Editors have permission to delete these "External links modified" talk page sections if they want to de-clutter talk pages, but see the RfC before doing mass systematic removals. The voice recording here sounds absolutely nothing like Stephen Fry! It can't be him, or if it was him it has been altered from his natural voice entirely. The reference given is verifiable but is not a reliable source as Wikipedia references are required to be; it should therefore be stricken.
Fry apparently has a diagnosis from the psychiatrist he currently sees. Wikipedia need not include or refer to every single verifiable mention of a topic. If it were to do so, we could not truly call it an "edited" site. The rabbinic style of argumentation frequently used, especially in the Pauline Letters and in the Letter to the Hebrews, undoubtedly attests that the New Testament emerged from the matrix of Judaism and that it is infused with the mentality of Jewish biblical commentators.
We are only concerned here with the formation of the canon of the Old Testament. The number 24 was often reduced to 22, the number of letters in the Hebrew alphabet. The numerical difference is explained by the fact that the Jews regarded as one book several writings that are distinct in the Christian canon, the writings of the Twelve Prophets, for example. Recent research and discoveries, however, have cast doubt on this opinion. It now seems more probable that at the time of Christianity's birth, closed collections of the Law and the Prophets existed in a textual form substantially identical with the Old Testament.
Towards the end of the first century A. Many of the books belonging to the third group of religious texts, not yet fixed, were regularly read in Jewish communities during the first century A. They were translated into Greek and circulated among Hellenistic Jews, both in Palestine and in the diaspora. Ac , their views on Scripture would have reflected those of their environment, but we are poorly informed on the subject.
Nevertheless, the writings of the New Testament suggest that a sacred literature wider than the Hebrew canon circulated in Christian communities. Generally, the authors of the New Testament manifest a knowledge of the deuterocanonical books and other non-canonical ones since the number of books cited in the New Testament exceeds not only the Hebrew canon, but also the so-called Alexandrian canon.
What the Church seems to have received was a body of Sacred Scripture which, within Judaism, was in the process of becoming canonical. When Judaism came to close its own canon, the Christian Church was sufficiently independent from Judaism not to be immediately affected.
It was only at a later period that a closed Hebrew canon began to exert influence on how Christians viewed it. The Old Testament of the early Church took different shapes in different regions as the diverse lists from Patristic times show.
The majority of Christian writings from the second century, as well as manuscripts of the Bible from the fourth century onwards, made use of or contain a great number of Jewish sacred books, including those which were not admitted into the Hebrew canon. It was only after the Jews had defined their canon that the Church thought of closing its own Old Testament canon. But we are lacking information on the procedure adopted and the reasons given for the inclusion of this or that book in the canon.
It is possible, nevertheless, to trace in a general way the evolution of the canon in the Church, both in the East and in the West. In the East from Origen's time c. Origen himself knew of the existence of numerous textual differences, which were often considerable, between the Hebrew and the Greek Bible.
To this was added the problem of different listings of books. The attempt to conform to the Hebrew text of the Hebrew canon did not prevent Christian authors in the East from utilising in their writings books that were never admitted into the Hebrew canon, or from following the Septuagint text.
The notion that the Hebrew canon should be preferred by Christians does not seem to have produced in the Eastern Church either a profound or long-lasting impression. In the West , the use of a larger collection of sacred books was common and was defended by Augustine.
When it came to selecting books to be included in the canon, Augustine based his judgement on the constant practice of the Church. At the beginning of the fifth century, councils adopted his position in drawing up the Old Testament canon. Although these councils were regional, the unanimity expressed in their lists represents Church usage in the West.
As regards the textual differences between the Greek and the Hebrew Bible, Jerome based his translation on the Hebrew text. For the deuterocanonical books, he was generally content to correct the Old Latin translation. From this time on, the Church in the West recognised a twofold biblical tradition: that of the Hebrew text for books of the Hebrew canon, and that of the Greek Bible for the other books, all in a Latin translation. Based on a time-honoured tradition, the Councils of Florence in and Trent in resolved for Catholics any doubts and uncertainties.
Their list comprises 73 books, which were accepted as sacred and canonical because they were inspired by the Holy Spirit, 46 for the Old Testament, 27 for the New. To determine this canon, it based itself on the Church's constant usage. In adopting this canon, which is larger than the Hebrew, it has preserved an authentic memory of Christian origins, since, as we have seen, the more restricted Hebrew canon is later than the formation of the New Testament.
A study of these relationships is indispensable for anyone who wishes to have a proper appreciation of the links between the Christian Church and the Jewish people. The understanding of these relationships has changed over time. The present chapter offers firstly an overview of these changes, followed by a more detailed study of the basic themes common to both Testaments.
Affirmation of a reciprocal relationship. Their first relationship is precisely that. At the beginning of the second century, when Marcion wished to discard the Old Testament, he met with vehement resistance from the post-apostolic Church.
Moreover, his rejection of the Old Testament led him to disregard a major portion of the New — he retained only the Gospel of Luke and some Pauline Letters — which clearly showed that his position was indefensible. It is in the light of the Old Testament that the New understands the life, death and glorification of Jesus cf. Lk Re-reading the Old Testament in the light of Christ.
The examples given show that different methods were used, taken from their cultural surroundings, as we have seen above. These suggest a twofold manner of reading, in its original meaning at the time of writing, and a subsequent interpretation in the light of Christ.
In Judaism, re-readings were commonplace. The Old Testament itself points the way. For example, in the episode of the manna, while not denying the original gift, the meaning is deepened to become a symbol of the Word through which God continually nourishes his people cf.
Dt What is specific to the Christian re-reading is that it is done, as we have said, in the light of Christ. This new interpretation does not negate the original meaning. The Hellenistic world had different methods of which Christian exegesis made use as well.
The Greeks often interpreted their classical texts by allegorising them. Commenting on ancient poetry like the works of Homer, where the gods seem to act like capricious and vindictive humans, scholars explained this in a more religious and morally acceptable way by emphasising that the poet was expressing himself in an allegorical manner when he wished to describe only human psychological conflicts, the passions of the soul, using the fiction of war between the gods.
In this case, a new and more spiritual meaning replaced the original one. Jews in the diaspora sometimes utilised this method, in particular to justify certain prescriptions of the Law which, taken literally, would appear nonsensical to the Hellenistic world. Philo of Alexandria, who had been nurtured in Hellenistic culture, tended in this direction. He developed, often with a touch of genius, the original meaning, but at other times he adopted an allegorical reading that completely overshadowed it.
As a result, his exegesis was not accepted in Judaism. Another Pauline text uses allegory to interpret a detail of the Law 1 Co , but he never adopted this method as a general rule. The Fathers of the Church and the medieval authors, in contrast, make systematic use of it for the entire Bible, even to the least detail — both for the New Testament as well as for the Old — to give a contemporary interpretation capable of application to the Christian life.
For example, Origen sees the wood used by Moses to sweeten the bitter waters Ex as an allusion to the wood of the cross; he sees the scarlet thread used by Rahab as a means of recognising her house Jos , as an allusion to the blood of the Saviour. Any detail capable of establishing contact between an Old Testament episode and Christian realities was exploited.
In every page of the Old Testament, in addition, many direct and specific allusions to Christ and the Christian life were found, but there was a danger of detaching each detail from its context and severing the relationship between the biblical text and the concrete reality of salvation history.
Interpretation then became arbitrary. Certainly, the proposed teaching had a certain value because it was animated by faith and guided by a comprehensive understanding of Scripture read in the Tradition. But such teaching was not based on the commentated text. It was superimposed on it. It was inevitable, therefore, that at the moment of its greatest success, it went into irreversible decline.
Thomas Aquinas saw clearly what underpinned allegorical exegesis: the commentator can only discover in a text what he already knows, and in order to know it, he had to find it in the literal sense of another text.
From this Thomas Aquinas drew the conclusion: a valid argument cannot be constructed from the allegorical sense, it can only be done from the literal sense. Starting from the Middle Ages, the literal sense has been restored to a place of honour and has not ceased to prove its value.
The critical study of the Old Testament has progressed steadily in that direction culminating in the supremacy of the historical-critical method. And so an inverse process was set in motion: the relation between the Old Testament and Christian realities was now restricted to a limited number of Old Testament texts. Today, there is the danger of going to the opposite extreme of denying outright, together with the excesses of the allegorical method, all Patristic exegesis and the very idea of a Christian and Christological reading of Old Testament texts.
This gave rise in contemporary theology, without as yet any consensus, to different ways of re-establishing a Christian interpretation of the Old Testament that would avoid arbitrariness and respect the original meaning. The basic theological presupposition is that God's salvific plan which culminates in Christ cf. Ep is a unity, but that it is realised progressively over the course of time.
Both the unity and the gradual realisation are important; likewise, continuity in certain points and discontinuity in others. From the outset, the action of God regarding human beings has tended towards final fulfilment and, consequently, certain aspects that remain constant began to appear: God reveals himself, calls, confers a mission, promises, liberates, makes a covenant.
The first realisations, though provisional and imperfect, already give a glimpse of the final plenitude. This is particularly evident in certain important themes which are developed throughout the entire Bible, from Genesis to Revelation: the way, the banquet, God's dwelling among men. Beginning from a continuous re-reading of events and texts, the Old Testament itself progressively opens up a perspective of fulfilment that is final and definitive.
The Exodus, the primordial experience of Israel's faith cf. Dt ; becomes the symbol of final salvation. Liberation from the Babylonian Exile and the prospect of an eschatological salvation are described as a new Exodus. The notion of fulfilment is an extremely complex one, 42 one that could easily be distorted if there is a unilateral insistence either on continuity or discontinuity.
Christian faith recognises the fulfilment, in Christ, of the Scriptures and the hopes of Israel, but it does not understand this fulfilment as a literal one.
Such a conception would be reductionist. In reality, in the mystery of Christ crucified and risen, fulfilment is brought about in a manner unforeseen. It includes transcendence. All the texts, including those which later were read as messianic prophecies, already had an immediate import and meaning for their contemporaries before attaining a fuller meaning for future hearers.
The messiahship of Jesus has a meaning that is new and original. The original task of the prophet was to help his contemporaries understand the events and the times they lived in from God's viewpoint.
Accordingly, excessive insistence, characteristic of a certain apologetic, on the probative value attributable to the fulfilment of prophecy must be discarded. This insistence has contributed to harsh judgements by Christians of Jews and their reading of the Old Testament: the more reference to Christ is found in Old Testament texts, the more the incredulity of the Jews is considered inexcusable and obstinate.
Insistence on discontinuity between both Testaments and going beyond former perspectives should not, however, lead to a one-sided spiritualisation. What has already been accomplished in Christ must yet be accomplished in us and in the world. The definitive fulfilment will be at the end with the resurrection of the dead, a new heaven and a new earth. Jewish messianic expectation is not in vain. It can become for us Christians a powerful stimulant to keep alive the eschatological dimension of our faith.
Like them, we too live in expectation. The difference is that for us the One who is to come will have the traits of the Jesus who has already come and is already present and active among us.
The Old Testament in itself has great value as the Word of God. To read the Old Testament as Christians then does not mean wishing to find everywhere direct reference to Jesus and to Christian realities.
True, for Christians, all the Old Testament economy is in movement towards Christ; if then the Old Testament is read in the light of Christ, one can, retrospectively, perceive something of this movement. But since it is a movement, a slow and difficult progression throughout the course of history, each event and each text is situated at a particular point along the way, at a greater or lesser distance from the end.
Retrospective re-readings through Christian eyes mean perceiving both the movement towards Christ and the distance from Christ, prefiguration and dissimilarity. Conversely, the New Testament cannot be fully understood except in the light of the Old Testament. The Christian interpretation of the Old Testament is then a differentiated one, depending on the different genres of texts.
It does not blur the difference between Law and Gospel, but distinguishes carefully the successive phases of revelation and salvation history. It is a theological interpretation, but at the same time historically grounded. Far from excluding historical-critical exegesis, it demands it. Although the Christian reader is aware that the internal dynamism of the Old Testament finds its goal in Jesus, this is a retrospective perception whose point of departure is not in the text as such, but in the events of the New Testament proclaimed by the apostolic preaching.
It cannot be said, therefore, that Jews do not see what has been proclaimed in the text, but that the Christian, in the light of Christ and in the Spirit, discovers in the text an additional meaning that was hidden there. The horror in the wake of the extermination of the Jews the Shoah during the Second World War has led all the Churches to rethink their relationship with Judaism and, as a result, to reconsider their interpretation of the Jewish Bible, the Old Testament.
It may be asked whether Christians should be blamed for having monopolised the Jewish Bible and reading there what no Jew has found. Should not Christians henceforth read the Bible as Jews do, in order to show proper respect for its Jewish origins? In answer to the last question, a negative response must be given for hermeneutical reasons. For to read the Bible as Judaism does necessarily involves an implicit acceptance of all its presuppositions, that is, the full acceptance of what Judaism is, in particular, the authority of its writings and rabbinic traditions, which exclude faith in Jesus as Messiah and Son of God.
As regards the first question, the situation is different, for Christians can and ought to admit that the Jewish reading of the Bible is a possible one, in continuity with the Jewish Sacred Scriptures from the Second Temple period, a reading analogous to the Christian reading which developed in parallel fashion. Both readings are bound up with the vision of their respective faiths, of which the readings are the result and expression.
Consequently, both are irreducible. On the practical level of exegesis, Christians can, nonetheless, learn much from Jewish exegesis practised for more than two thousand years, and, in fact, they have learned much in the course of history. A God who speaks to humans. The God of the Bible is one who enters into communication with human beings and speaks to them. In different ways, the Bible describes the initiative taken by God to communicate with humanity in choosing the people of Israel.
God makes his word heard either directly or though a spokesperson. The divine word takes the form of a promise made to Moses to bring the people of Israel out of Egypt Ex , following the promises made to the patriarchs, Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, for their descendants.
After the departure from Egypt, God commits himself to his people by a covenant in which he twice takes the initiative Ex ; As bearer of the word of God, Moses is considered a prophet, 48 and even more than a prophet Nb Throughout the course of the people's history, prophets were conscious of transmitting the word of God. The narratives of the prophetic call show how the word of God comes, forcefully imposes itself, and invites a response. Prophets like Isaiah, Jeremiah and Ezechiel perceive God's word as an event which changed their lives.
Even though it meets with resistance because of human freedom, the word of God is efficacious: 50 it is a force working at the heart of history. In the narrative of the creation of the world by God Gn 1 , we discover that, for God, to say is to do.
The New Testament prolongs this perspective and deepens it. For Jesus becomes the preacher of the word of God Lk and appeals to Scripture: he is recognised as a prophet, 51 but he is more than a prophet. Jesus is not simply a messenger; he makes plain his intimacy with God.
God is One. God is ONE: this proclamation points to the language of love cf. Sg The God who loves Israel is confessed as unique and calls each one to respond to that love by a love ever total. Israel is called to acknowledge that the God who brought it out of Egypt is the only one who liberated it from slavery.
This God alone has rescued Israel and Israel must express its faith in him by keeping the Law and through the cult. In the New Testament the profession of Jewish faith is repeated by Jesus himself in Mk , quoting Dt , and by his Jewish questioner who quotes Dt God the Creator and providence.
In this opening text, the affirmation of the goodness of creation is repeated seven times, becoming one of the refrains Gn In different formulations, in different contexts, the affirmation of God as Creator is constantly repeated. Thus in the narrative of the Exodus from Egypt, God exercises power over the wind and the sea Ex In Is , this creative action is the basis of hope for a salvation to come.
The God who creates the world by his Word Gn 1 and gives human beings the breath of life Gn , is also the one who shows solicitude towards every human being from the moment of conception. An interesting aspect of this text is that the creative action of God serves here to ground faith in the resurrection of the just. The same is true of Rm Faith in God the Creator, vanquisher of the cosmic forces and of evil, becomes inseparable from trust in him as Saviour of the Israelite people as well as of individuals.
In the New Testament, the conviction that all existing things are the work of God comes straight from the Old Testament. It seems so obvious that no proof is needed and creation vocabulary is not prominent in the Gospels.
Nevertheless, there is in Mt a reference to Gn which speaks of the creation of man and woman. Look at the birds of the air; they neither sow nor reap The Word came into the world, yet the world did not know him Jn Jesus witnesses to this love of God to the very end Jn Using a different vocabulary, the Book of Revelation offers a similar perspective.
In history, the victory over the forces of evil will go hand in hand with a new creation that will have God himself as light, 62 and a temple will no longer be needed, for the Almighty God and the Lamb will be the Temple of the heavenly city, the new Jerusalem Rv , In the Pauline Letters, creation has an equally important place.
The argument of Paul in Rm concerning the pagans is well known. Ws So creation then may not be rejected as evil. We will take up this theme later after treating of the human condition.
The Human Person: Greatness and Wretchedness. These chapters set the tone for reading the entire Bible. Everyone is invited to recognise therein the essential traits of the human situation and the basis for the whole of salvation history. Created in the image of God: affirmed before the call of Abraham and the election of Israel, this characteristic applies to all men and women of all times and places Gn 64 and confers on them their highest dignity. The expression may have originated in the royal ideology of the nations surrounding Israel, especially in Egypt, where the Pharaoh was regarded as the living image of god, entrusted with the maintenance and renewal of the cosmos.
But the Bible has made this metaphor into a fundamental category for defining every human person. Insofar as they are images of God and the Creator's stewards, human beings become recipients of his word and are called to be obedient to him Gn Human beings exist as man and woman whose task is at the service of life.
In this way, the likeness to God, the relationship of man and woman, and ruling over the world are intimately connected.
The close relationship between being created in God's image and having authority over the earth has many consequences. First of all, the universality of these characteristics excludes all superiority of one group or individual over another.
All human beings are in the image of God and all are charged with furthering the Creator's work of ordering. Secondly, arrangements are made with a view to the harmonious co-existence of all living things in their search for the necessary means of subsistence: God provides for both humans and beasts Gn As well as the rhythm of day and night, lunar months and solar years Gn , God establishes a weekly rhythm with rest on the seventh day, the basis of the sabbath Gn When they keep the sabbath observance Ex , the masters of the earth render homage to their Creator.
Human wretchedness finds its exemplary biblical expression in the story of the first sin and punishment in the garden of Eden. This prohibition implies that serving God and keeping his commandments are correlatives of the power to subdue the earth Gn , The man fulfils God's intentions first of all by naming the animals and then in accepting the woman as God's gift In the temptation scene, in contrast, the human couple ceases to act in accordance with God's demands.
The result is that they try to avoid a confrontation with God. But their attempt to hide themselves shows the folly of sin, because it leaves them in the very place where the voice of God can be heard The man and the woman perceive that they are naked , which means that they have forfeited trust in each other and in the harmony of creation.
By his sentence, God redefines the conditions of human living but not the relationship between him and the couple On the other hand, the man is relieved of his particular task in the garden, but not of work , In other words, God continues to give human beings a task.
The relationship between man and wife deteriorates. When this prohibition is violated, access to the tree of life is henceforth blocked Created in God's image and charged with cultivating the soil, the human couple have the great honour of being called to complete the creative action of God in taking care of his creatures Wi By refusing to heed the voice of God and preferring that of creatures human freedom is brought into play; to suffer pain and death is the consequence of a choice made by the persons themselves.
The Old Testament reveals how this plan was realised through the ages, with alternating moments of wretchedness and greatness. Yet God was never resigned to leaving his people in wretchedness.
He always reinstates them in the path of true greatness, for the benefit of the whole of humanity. To these fundamental traits, it may be added that the Old Testament is not unaware of either the deceptive aspects of human existence cf.
Qo , the problem of innocent suffering cf. But in every case, especially the last, far from being an obstacle to human greatness, the experience of wretchedness, paradoxically, served to enhance greatness. The anthropology of the New Testament is based on that of the Old. It bears witness to the grandeur of the human person created in God's image Gn and to his wretchedness, brought on by the undeniable reality of sin, which makes him into a caricature of his true self.
Greatness of the human person. In the Gospels the greatness of the human being stands out in the solicitude shown to him by God, more than that of the birds of heaven or the flowers of the fields Mt ; it is also highlighted by the ideal proposed to him: to become merciful as God is merciful Lk , perfect as God is perfect Mt , It is hunger for the word of God that draws the crowds first to John the Baptist Mt and par. As the image of God, the human person is attracted towards God.
Even the pagans are capable of great faith. It was the apostle Paul who deepened anthropological reflection. One can scarcely imagine a greater dignity. The theme of the creation of the human person in God's image is treated by Paul in a multifaceted way. It is by contemplating the glory of the Lord that this resemblance is bestowed 2 Co ; The greatness of the human person will then reach its culmination. The wretchedness of the human being. The wretched state of humanity appears in various ways in the New Testament.
It is clear that earth is no paradise! The Gospels repeatedly give a long list of maladies and infirmities that beset people. Death strikes and gives rise to sorrow.
But it is especially moral misery that is the focus of attention. Humanity finds itself in a situation of sin that puts it in extreme danger. The preaching of John the Baptist reverberates with force in the desert. The passion of Jesus was then an extreme manifestation of the moral wretchedness of humanity. Nothing was missing: betrayal, denial, abandonment, unjust trial and condemnation, insults and ill-treatment, cruel sufferings accompanied by mockery.
It is in Paul's Letter to the Romans that we find the most sombre description of the moral decay of humanity Rm , and the most penetrating analysis of the condition of the sinner Rm Their refusal to give glory to God and to thank him leads to complete blindness and to the worst perversions Paul wants to show that moral decay is universal and that the Jew is not exempt, in spite of the privilege of knowing the Law It is more in the nature of a theological intuition of what humans become without the grace of God: evil is in the heart of each one cf.
Ps If sin were not universal, there would be some who would have had no need of redemption. The power of sin avails of the Law itself to manifest its destructiveness all the more, by inciting transgression Who will rescue me from this body of death? Thus is manifested the urgent need of redemption. On a different note, but still quite forcefully, the Book of Revelation itself witnesses to the ravages of evil produced in the human world. Evil releases terrible calamities. But it will not have the last word.
Babylon falls The salvation that comes from God is opposed to the proliferation of evil. From the beginning of its history, with the Exodus from Egypt , Israel had experienced the lordas Liberator and Saviour: to this the Bible witnesses, describing how Israel was rescued from Egyptian power at the time of the crossing of the sea Ex The miraculous crossing of the sea becomes one of the principal themes for praising God. In the land of Canaan, continuing the experience of liberation from Egypt, Israel was once again the recipient of the liberating and salvific intervention of God.
Oppressed by enemy peoples because of its infidelity towards God, Israel called to him for help. In the anguished situation of the Exile — after the loss of the Land — Second Isaiah , a prophet whose name is unknown, announced to the exiles an unheard-of message: the Lord was about to repeat his original liberating intervention — that of the Exodus from Egypt — and even to surpass it.
After the return of the exiles, seen as imminent by Second Isaiah and soon to become a reality — but not in a very spectacular manner — the hope of eschatological liberation began to dawn: the spiritual successors of the exilic prophet announced the fulfilment, yet to come, of the redemption of Israel as a divine intervention at the end of time. In many of the Psalms, salvation takes on an individual aspect. Caught in the grip of sickness or hostile intrigues, an Israelite can invoke the Lord to be preserved from death or oppression.
He has confidence in the saving intervention of God Ps In some texts, salvation after death makes its appearance. God then can not only subdue the power of death to prevent the faithful from being separated from him, he can lead them beyond death to a participation in his glory. The Book of Daniel and the Deuterocanonical Writings take up the theme of salvation and develop it further. In the Old Testament, to bring about liberation and salvation, God makes use of human instruments, who, as we have seen, were sometimes called saviours, as God himself more often was.
The very name of Jesus evokes the salvation given by God. It can be said that in the Gospels, the Acts of the Apostles and in the uncontested Pauline Letters, the New Testament is very sparing in its use of the title Saviour.
The title, then, could become ambiguous. Furthermore, the notion of salvation, in the Greek world, had a strong individual and physical connotation, while the New Testament, in continuity with the Old, had a collective amplitude and was open to the spiritual.
With the passage of time, the danger of ambiguity lessened. In Jesus' public life, his power to save was manifested not only in the spiritual plane, as in Lk , but also — and frequently — in the bodily realm as well. He has brought salvation of a different kind. The perspective is eschatological. God is the Liberator and Saviour, above all, of an insignificant people — situated along with others between two great empires — because he has chosen this people for himself, setting them apart for a special relationship with him and for a mission in the world.
The idea of election is fundamental for an understanding of the Old Testament and indeed for the whole Bible. The choice which the Lord made of Israel is manifest in the divine intervention to free it from Egypt and in the gift of the land.
At the same time, the importance of Israel's response to the divine initiative is underlined as well as the necessity of appropriate conduct. In this way, the theology of election throws light both on the distinctive status and on the special responsibility of a people who, in the midst of other peoples, has been chosen as the special possession of God, to be holy as God is holy.
In Deuteronomy, the theme of election not only concerns people. One of the more fundamental requirements of the book is that the cult of the Lord be celebrated in the place which the Lord has chosen. The election of the people appears in the hortatory introduction to the laws, but in the laws themselves, divine election is concentrated on one sanctuary.
The chosen tribe is Judah in preference to Ephraim, the chosen person is David. Thus the Lord has chosen Jerusalem 2 Ch or more precisely, Zion Ps , for his dwelling place.
For the Israelites in troubled and difficult times, when the future seemed closed, the conviction of being God's chosen people sustained their hope in the mercy of God and in fidelity to his promises. During the Exile, Second Isaiah takes up the theme of election to console the exiles who thought they were abandoned by God Is The execution of God's justice had not brought an end to Israel's election, this remained solid, because it was founded on the election of the patriarchs.
The election of Israel does not imply the rejection of the other nations. This understanding of election is typical of the Bible as a whole. In its teaching on Israel's election, Deuteronomy, as we have said, puts the accent on the divine initiative, but also on the demands of the relationship between God and his people.
Faith in the election could, nevertheless, harden into a proud superiority. The prophets battled against this deviation.
A message of Amos relativises the election and attributes to the nations the privilege of an exodus comparable to Israel's Am Amos believes that the Lord had chosen Israel in a unique and special manner. It expresses a personal relationship more intimate than simply intellectual knowledge. But this relationship brings with it specific moral demands. Because it is God's people, Israel must live as God's people. For Amos, it is clear that election means responsibility more than privilege.
Obviously, the choice comes first followed by the demand. It is nonetheless true that God's election of Israel implies a high level of responsibility. By recalling this, the prophet disposes of the illusion that being God's chosen people means having a claim on God. The peoples' and their kings' obstinate disobedience provoked the catastrophe of the Exile as foretold by the prophets.
This decree of God produced its effect 2 K Jerusalem must be rebuilt; the prophet Haggai predicts for the rebuilt Temple a glory greater than that of Solomon's Temple Hg In this way, the election was solemnly reconfirmed.
But the opposition Jesus encounters from the leaders brings about a change of perspective.