Largely forgotten here in the States, the band chalked up hit after hit, as well as several undeniably classic albums, before calling it a day in While the band's catalog has been reissued and re-compiled to death in the intervening years, none of those releases did justice to the live reputation The Jam enjoyed. That is, until now. If you're a fan, you'll be transported. But even if you're just curious, this box set—along with the recent, excellent documentary About The Young Idea —is as good a starting point as any.
Bob Marley is another artist whose core catalog has been reissued so many times over the years it boggles the mind. But when we celebrated the reggae icon's 70th birthday earlier this year , we meant it. And it's fitting that the newest addition to the long line of releases since Marley's untimely death from cancer in goes back to basics. The Complete Island Recordings compiles Marley's core catalog onto 12 lovingly remastered, heavyweight vinyl LPs, and houses them in a nifty metal Zippo-styled case.
There are no extras here, save for a few photos of Marley and the band and a cool slipmat for your turntable, and that's actually okay. The Band backed up Bob Dylan, influenced The Beatles, Eric Clapton, and numerous others, and should be synonymous with the birth of what we now know as Americana.
For any fan of American roots music, The Capitol Albums: , which includes the albums Music From The Big Pink , the self-titled second album, Stage Fright , Cahoots , Moondog Matinee , Northern Lights - Southern Cross , Islands , and the live double-disc Rock of Ages , are essential listening, and the versions included here are better than any since the originals hit the shelves more than 40 years ago.
But for the non-Dylanologist on your list, the 6-disc version tells an equally compelling story of a young artist at the absolute peak of his powers.
Such an arrangement could use a sequence of three lenses aligned along the Y axis of FIG. The spacing of the lenses might advantageously be uniform to provide uniformly spaced regions on the light sensitive surface of the image array The red and cyan filter colors described above are thus only presented herein as an example, and any combination of filters which pass at least two isolated or overlapping spectral bands of light and allow for the distinction of tail lamps from head lamps may be used.
Those skilled in the art will recognize that other methods can be used to incorporate the filters, such as screen printing dyes applied to the flat back surface of the lens structure , or application of a filter material to the surface of-the of a clear lens structure.
Additionally, an advantageous system using a single lens is described herein below with reference to FIGS. Aperture stop comprises an opaque member, including apertures FIG. The aperture stop can be manufactured of any suitable material, such as molded plastic, and it can be painted or otherwise treated so as to block the passage of light if the material of which the plastic is manufactured is not opaque. Aperture stop defines the apertures , for lens elements and Aperture stop also prevents passage of stray light through regions of lens structure other than the lens elements and It will be recognized that the aperture stop can be paint applied directly to the surface of lens structure , and optionally to the sidewalls of light sensor assembly , such that the paint blocks passage of stray light through regions of lens other than the lens elements and The far field baffle FIGS.
The baffle includes an opening , which is the sole light passage into the image sensor. The illustrated far field baffle is a generally rectangular box including four sidewalls only two of the four being visible in FIG. The open end is secured to the support on which image sensor is carried.
The support may for example be a circuit board, or a housing, and is preferably opaque to block the passage of light into the chamber defined by the far field baffle. The walls , of the far field baffle are opaque, and may be of any suitable construction such as stamped from metal, molded from plastic, or the like.
If the material from which the walls are made is not opaque, it may be painted or otherwise treated to block the admission of light. The far field baffle defines the forward scene viewed by image sensor array The side walls and end wall prevent light at angles outside of the desired field of view from entering and are also used to keep light input through one lens from crossing over to the region of the array reserved for the other lens.
The far field baffle aperture is ideally about focal lengths, or approximately 18 mm in the illustrated embodiment, from the front of the lens for the sake of clarity, the figures of the application are not to scale.
The field of view through aperture , aperture stop , and lenses and , in the illustrated embodiment, is about 10 in the vertical direction and 25 in the horizontal direction in front of the vehicle. This field of view can be achieved with a rectangular or elliptical far field baffle opening that is 6 to 7 mm in the Y direction and 9 to 10 mm in the X direction, in the above described embodiment. In particular the far field baffle has an opening in an end wall The sidewalls of the image array sensor extend orthogonally from the end wall The walls , may be formed integrally in a molding or stamping process or they may be joined after construction using an adhesive, fasteners or the like.
The far field baffle is preferably a black plastic molded member, although it may be provided using any material that will absorb most or all of the light striking the sidewalls. By providing wall surfaces on the inside of the far field baffle that absorb light, the walls will not reflect light that enters though opening onto the image array sensor In the illustrated embodiment, the baffle is rectangular, but those skilled in the art will recognize that the baffle could be square, cylindrical, or any other suitable shape.
An imaging system including a far field baffle is described in co-pending U. Bechtel et al, the disclosure of which is incorporated herein by reference thereto. The far field baffle holds an optional infrared filter FIG. Infrared filter prevents light of wavelengths longer than about nm from being imaged by the optical system. This is advantageous as light above nm FIG. By removing this light, the only light that will be considered is visible light in the pass band of the red and blue filters.
The infrared filter may be mounted to the end wall using an adhesive, mechanical fasteners such as a snap connector, or the like, and may seal off the chamber within the far field baffle to prevent dust and moisture from entering the system and degrading the performance of the system. Alternatively infrared filter may be incorporated as a dye within the lens, a coating on the lens, a coating on the image sensor surface, a lid on an image sensor package, or elsewhere in the image sensor assembly.
If the IR filter is not such that it can be used to close the opening of far field baffle , it may be desirable to place a clear window, such as glass, plastic, or the like in the opening to prevent dust from entering into the interior of the far field baffle and interfering with the performance of the sensor system Assembly of the image sensor will now be described with reference to image sensor assembly of FIG.
The image sensor , lens structure , and aperture stop are combined to form an integral image sensor assembly FIG. The image sensor , which is advantageously a single integrated circuit IC , is attached to printed circuit board by any suitable conventional means such as using chip-on-board technology.
Connections to the image sensor chip are made by any suitable means, such as wire bonds The bonded IC is then optionally covered with an optically clear stress relieving gel The coated IC is then encapsulated in a hard optically clear enclosure , which may for example comprise epoxy.
The epoxy is formed into a desired shape, and may for example form a cube. The cube can be dimensioned to occupy a very small volume, and may for example have length and width dimensions of about 1 cm on a side, and a thickness of about 5 mm. The enclosure FIG. If the coefficient of thermal expansion of the enclosure is sufficiently low that its expansion and contraction will not break wire bonds at the expected operating temperature range for the image array sensor , stress-relieving gel can be omitted, as is shown by enclosure over wire bonds in image sensor assembly in FIG.
Lens structure is attached to the enclosure FIG. UV curable adhesive is dispensed onto the epoxy cube and lens is juxtaposed with UV curable adhesive The UV curable adhesive is exposed to UV light and cured, locking lens structure into position and permanently attaching lens structure to enclosure The total distance between the back surface of the lens structure and the top of the image sensor die is 6.
This distance is significantly longer than the effective focal length of 4. Ideally the process of aligning the lens to the image sensor and curing the UV adhesive to hold it in place is accomplished while actively focusing the lens to accommodate variations in the manufacture of the lens and other image sensor assembly components.
This is process is accomplished by powering the image sensor during assembly and acquiring images of a far field scene from the image sensor into a host computer. The UV curable adhesive is dispensed onto the surface of the sensor and the lens is positioned on the UV curable adhesive using a multi-axis robot or positioner.
The position of the lens is adjusted by the robot until the images acquired by the sensor appear in focus. At this point, the UV curable adhesive is exposed to UV light, cementing the lens into place.
UV curable adhesive serves to fill the space between the lens and enclosure , and thus fills in any ripples or other non-planar surfaces of enclosure thereby precluding the creation of air gaps between the lens and the enclosure To accomplish the desirable optical characteristics described hereinabove, UV curable adhesive should have approximately the same index of refraction as enclosure This structure has the distinct advantage of minimizing the number of optical surfaces wherein a significant mismatch of indices of refraction between two different mediums can occur, thus increasing the optical efficiency of the imaging system and reducing stray light.
Other materials suitable for making the image sensor assembly are available from Dymax. The block is completed by attaching the aperture stop to lens If the aperture stop is a member, it may be attached to the outer surface of the lens using an adhesive, one or more mechanical fasteners, or the like. If the aperture stop is paint, it may be applied directly to the surface of the lens element after the lenses and are covered with a removable mask, such as tape.
After the paint dries, the mask can be removed. The optical assembly is then mounted to a support In particular, the image sensor array is physically mounted on a base substrate by conventional means, and electrically connected to circuitry not shown in FIG.
The base substrate may for example be a printed circuit board. The support may be constructed of the same material as the far field baffle , or it may be constructed of a different material. The base substrate may be omitted if the far field baffle and the image sensor are mounted directly to either the support or the housing not shown that carries the optical sensor assembly.
For example, the support may be a printed circuit board to which the image sensor and the far field baffle are connected. Regardless of whether the base substrate is provided, the far field baffle is mounted to the support or the housing not shown using an adhesive, a snap connector, a mechanical fastener, or the like. An image sensor assembly according to an alternate embodiment is illustrated in FIG. In this embodiment, the image sensor is packaged using more conventional electronic packaging, such as a ceramic package with a glass lid or a clear plastic package, which may for example be a quad flat pack or a dual-in-line DIP package.
The packaged image sensor is mounted, by suitable conventional means such as by soldering, to printed circuit board An ultraviolet UV curable adhesive is then dispensed onto the packaged image sensor The adhesive used can be the same adhesive described above with respect to adhesive The thickness of the UV curable adhesive is dependent on the packaged image sensor type.
If the required thickness is too great, layers of the UV curable adhesive can be built up or another material, such as an epoxy layer, can be sandwiched between the UV curable adhesives to decrease the thickness of the adhesive layer The epoxy may be the same material described above with respect to the enclosure , The lens structure is juxtaposed with the UV curable adhesive and focused in the manner previously described.
Finally, the aperture stop is attached to the lens structure using an adhesive not shown , mechanical fastener or the like. In addition to the means described herein above, the lens structure may be supported relative to the image sensor by other means, such as a mechanical support. Such a structure is disclosed in U. The same may also be used to position and maintain the relative relationship between the components of the optical assembly including the aperture stop and the far field baffle.
A mechanical fastening arrangement is disclosed hereinbelow with respect to FIG. As mentioned above, the headlamp dimmer can be advantageously integrated into a rearview mirror as illustrated in FIG. This location provides an unobstructed forward view through a region of the windshield of the vehicle that is typically cleaned by the vehicle's windshield wipers not shown.
Additionally, mounting the image sensor in the mirror assembly permits sharing of circuitry such as the power supply, microcontroller and light sensors. More specifically, the same ambient light sensor may be used to provide and ambient light measurement for both the auto-dimming mirror function and the headlamp control function. Referring to FIG. The rearview mirror mount provides an opaque enclosure for the image sensor. The infrared filter can be mounted over a hole in the rear view mirror mount , as is shown.
Alternatively, the far field baffle can be used with the infrared filter mounted therein. If the far field baffle is used, it is mounted to the circuit board with the image sensor assembly Regardless of whether the far field baffle is used, the circuit board is mounted to rear view mirror mount using mounting brackets and The mounting brackets may be implemented using any suitable construction, such as metal brackets, plastic brackets which can be formed either integrally with the housing or as separate components, mechanical fasteners which engage the circuit board , or the like.
The separate brackets can be attached using an adhesive, metal fasteners or other mechanical fastening means. Image sensor assembly is thus attached to, and held stationary by, the rear view mirror mount which is securely attached to the vehicle windshield or roof by conventional means.
A connector is connected to circuit board using a suitable commercially available circuit board connector not shown , which in turn is connected to the image sensor through circuit board The connector is connected to a main circuit through a cable The main circuit board is mounted within rear view mirror housing by conventional means.
Power and a communication link with the vehicle electrical system, including the headlamps FIG. The image sensor electrically connected to the main circuit board and mounted in the vehicle rearview mirror housing FIG.
The microcontroller receives image signals from the image sensor , processes the images, and generates output signals. Although described with reference to a circuit board mounted in a rearview mirror housing, the circuit board can be mounted in a vehicle accessory, such as a sun visor, overhead console, center console, dashboard, prismatic rearview mirror, A-pillar, or at any other suitable location in the vehicle.
Should the controlled vehicle in FIG. Thus, the main circuit board is mounted within the mirror housing The EC circuitry further includes ambient light sensor and glare light sensor , which may advantageously be digital photodiode light sensors as described in U. Microcontroller uses inputs from ambient light sensor and glare lights sensor to determine the appropriate state for the electrochromic mirror element The mirror is driven by EC mirror drive circuitry , which may be a drive circuit described in U.
Turnbull et al. Knapp et al. Other driver circuits are known that can be used to drive the EC element The EC mirror drive circuit provides current to the EC element through signal output The microcontroller can take advantage of the availability of signals such as vehicle speed communicated over the vehicle's electrical bus in making decisions regarding the operation of the headlamps , represented by high beams and low beams in FIG.
In particular, speed input provides vehicle speed information to the microcontroller , from which vehicle speed criteria can be used for determining the control state for the headlamps The reverse signal informs microcontroller that the vehicle is in reverse, responsive to which the microcontroller clears the electrochromic mirror element regardless of the signals output from the light sensors , Manual dimmer switch input is connected to a manually actuated switch not shown provides a manual override signal for the high beam state.
Should the current controlled state of the high beams be ON, the microcontroller will respond to actuation signal manual override signal control input to turn the high beams OFF temporarily until the driver restores operation or, optionally, until a predetermined time has elapsed. Alternatively, should the high beams be OFF, the microcontroller will respond to an actuation signal on input to turn the high beams ON. The manual high beam control switch can be implemented using a lever switch located on the steering column of controlled vehicle FIG.
The circuit board has several outputs. The control signal on electrochromic output provides current to the electrochromic element Additional outputs not shown may optionally be provided to control exterior electrochromic rear view mirrors not shown if such additional mirrors are provided. The microcontroller communicates the current state of the low beam headlamps and the high beam headlamps to the headlamp drive via headlamp control output The microcontroller generates control signals communicated over conductor FIG.
The high beam indicator is traditionally located in or near the vehicle's instrument cluster on the vehicle dashboard. A compass sensor may be connected to the circuit board via a bidirectional data bus The compass can be implemented using a commercially available compass of the type generating digital or analog signals indicative of the vehicle's heading, such as those described in U.
A fog lamp control can be connected to receive via fog light control output control signals generated by microcontroller Some or all of the inputs , , , , and , and outputs , , , and , as well as any other possible inputs or outputs, can optionally be provided through a vehicle communications bus shown in FIG.
Vehicle bus may be implemented using any suitable standard communication bus, such as a Controller Area Network CAN bus. If vehicle bus is used, microcontroller may include a bus controller or the control interface may be provided by additional components on the main control board Bus includes respective wires and carrying pulse width modulated PWM signals generated by microcontroller for driving low beam headlamps 1 and high beam headlamps Alternatively, headlamp drive may contain a DC power supply to vary the voltage supplied to the lamps , , and thus their brightness, in response to control signals on output Yet another alternative envisioned is to vary the aim of the high beam headlamps as is described hereinbelow and as taught in US patent application Ser.
Headlamp drive provides power to the high beam and low beam headlamps. In the simplest case, the headlamp drive contains relays engaged in response to signal to turn ON or OFF the headlamps. In a more preferred embodiment, low and high beam headlamps and 1 fade ON or OFF under the control of headlamp drive which generates a variable control signal. Such a control system is described in copending U. The microcontroller analyzes images acquired by the image sensor assembly responsive to which it detects oncoming or preceding vehicles in the forward field of view.
The microcontroller uses this information in conjunction with the various other inputs thereto to determine the current control state for the headlamps , The current control state of the headlamps refers to the brightness of the high beams and the low beams.
In a variable control system, this brightness is varied by changing the duty cycle of the beams or the DC voltage applied to the lamps as described above. In a non-variable system, the control state refers to whether the high beams and low beams are ON or OFF. A more detailed schematic showing the connections to the microcontroller is shown in FIG. The microcontroller can be implemented using a microcontroller, a microprocessor, a digital signal processor, a programmable logic unit, discrete circuitry or combination thereof.
Additionally, the microcontroller may be implemented using more than one microprocessor. The combined effect of the lens structure and the far field baffle will first be described with respect to FIGS. The forward scene imaged through the red lens is located on one region of the image array The forward scene imaged through the other lens element is located on region of the image array In the embodiment illustrated, each of these regions is a 60 wide by 20 high pixel subwindow of the image array.
The rear glare measurement is used for the control of the electrochromic mirror reflectivity. The forward ambient light level measurement is averaged with prior measurements to compute a forward time averaged ambient light level.
This average light level is computed as the average of measurements taken over a second interval. Responsive thereto, the microcontroller computes the control state for electrochromic element as a function of the light level measured by sensors and in step This PWM output is then fed to a series drive circuit.
If the headlamps , are not in auto mode as determined in step , which is manually set responsive to the signal , the microcontroller returns to step , such that the microcontroller will continue to control the variable reflectance of the electrochromic element Decision provides the user with a manual override if the high beams are ON.
Additionally, the high beam automatic control will be skipped in step the decision will be NO if the high beams are not ON.
If it is determined in step that the automatic mode is active, the microcontroller uses the average ambient light level measured in step to determine whether the ambient light level is below a low beam minimum threshold in step The threshold may, for example, be lux, and in one implementation was 2 lux. If the ambient light level is above the threshold, indicating that high beam headlamps would not provide significant advantage, high beam control will not be used, and the microcontroller returns to step If the ambient light level is below the low beam minimum, for example, below approximately 2 lux, the use of high beam headlamps may be desired.
In this case, the microcontroller will operate to control the headlamps , In addition to the average ambient light level discussed above, it is also advantageous to consider the instantaneous ambient light level.
Should the instantaneous ambient light level suddenly drop to a very low value, for example, less than 0. This situation may occur when a vehicle sitting under a well-lit intersection suddenly crosses the intersection into a dark street where high beam operation is desired immediately.
The microcontroller analyzes images of the forward scene acquired by image sensor to detect the presence of oncoming or preceding vehicles as indicated in step Based upon the results of step , the microcontroller sets the control state of the headlamps in step Setting the control state requires setting a duty cycle for the pulse drive in the preferred embodiment.
In some vehicles, the low beam headlamps will always be ON regardless of the state of the high beams. In such a vehicle, only the duty cycle of the high beams will be varied. Other vehicles will have the low beams OFF when the high beams are ON, in which case the duty cycle of the low beams will be reduced as the high beam duty cycle is increased.
Control of the vehicle headlights using a PWM signal is disclosed in U. Step , which is the process of acquiring images in the forward field of the vehicle and analyzing such images, is described in greater detail with reference to FIG.
A first pair of images are acquired in step through both the red lens and the cyan lens , corresponding to the two fields and shown in FIG. These images are taken at a low sensitivity. Sensitivity of the image sensor may, for example, be dictated by the frame exposure time, the analog amplifier gain, and the DAC high and low references. The image sensor should be just sensitive enough to image oncoming headlamps at the maximum distance for which the controlled vehicle's headlamps should be dimmed.
These images will be sufficient to detect oncoming headlamps at any distance of interest and nearby tail lamps without being washed out by bright headlamps or other noise light sources. In this mode, the sensor should not be sensitive enough to detect reflections off signs or reflectors except in rare cases where the reflecting object is very near to the controlled vehicle. During dark ambient light conditions, this sensitivity will be low enough to detect only lighted objects. The sensitivity of the image sensor when acquiring the images in step may also be varied according to whether the high beams are currently ON.
When controlling high beams manually, a driver will typically wait until an oncoming vehicle FIG. However, if the high beams are OFF, most drivers will not activate their high beam headlamps even if an oncoming vehicle is at a great distance. This is in anticipation that the oncoming vehicle will soon come within a distance where the controlled vehicle's high beam headlamps will annoy the oncoming driver, such that the driver of the controlled vehicle will have to turn the high beams OFF shortly after they were activated.
To partially mimic this behavior, a higher sensitivity image is acquired if the high beams are OFF, enabling detection of vehicles at a greater distance, than if the high beams are ON. The images are analyzed in step FIG. In step , the properties of the light sources detected are analyzed to determine if they are from oncoming vehicles, preceding vehicles, or other objects.
If a light source from a preceding vehicle is bright enough to indicate that the high beams should be dim, the control process proceeds to step and the high beam state is set. If no vehicles are detected in step , a second pair of images are taken through lens , at a greater sensitivity.
First, a determination of the state of the high beams is made in step This determination is made because the sensitivity of the second pair of images may be five to ten times the sensitivity of the first pair. With a higher sensitivity image, more nuisance light sources are likely to be imaged by the image sensor These nuisances are typically caused by reflections off road signs or road reflectors, which become much more pronounced with the high beams ON.
When the high beams are ON, it is advantageous to limit the forward field of view to the area directly in front of the controlled vehicle such that it is unlikely that reflectors or reflective signs will be in the field of view. If the high beams are OFF, an image with the same field of view as the low sensitivity images acquired in step can be used since the reflections of low beam headlamps off of signs and reflectors are much less bright than those when high beams are used.
Thus, the decision step is used to select either a narrow field of view image in step or a wide field of view in step For either field of view, a pair of images will be taken. As described above with respect to the acquisition of low sensitivity images in step , the sensitivity of the high sensitivity images may also be varied according to the state of the high beam headlamps to provide additional control in avoiding nuisance light sources.
As with the low sensitivity images, the high sensitivity images are analyzed to detect light sources in step A determination is made if any of these light sources represent a vehicle close enough to the controlled vehicle to require dimming of the high beam headlamps.
Additional images may be necessary depending on the dynamic range of the image sensor. For example, it may be necessary to acquire a very high sensitivity image with a very narrow field of view to detect a preceding car's tail lamps at a great distance.
Alternatively, should the image sensor have sufficient dynamic range, only one pair of images at one sensitivity may be needed. It is advantageous to use three sets of images, a low sensitivity set, a medium sensitivity set, and a high sensitivity set. The medium sensitivity set has about 5 times the sensitivity of the low gain and the high gain has about 20 times the sensitivity of the low gain.
The low gain image set is primarily utilized for detection of headlamps while the medium and high gain images are primarily utilized for detection of taillamps. Depending on the quantum efficiency of the image sensor at different wavelengths of light, and the filter characteristics of the filters used for the lens elements and , it may be advantageous to use a different sensitivity for the two regions and The timing and control circuitry described in the U.
This is accomplished by adding a register which contains the gain values for the analog amplifier used during acquisition of each subwindow. In this way, the relative sensitivity of the two regions can be automatically balanced to provide a similar output when a white light source is imaged through both lens elements. This may be of particular advantage if the image for region is acquired without filtering the light rays, for example, by using a clear lens instead of a cyan filter for rays passing through lens element For this lens set, the pixels in region will receive approximately 3 times as much light when imaging a white light source as those pixels in region which receive light that has passed through a red filter.
The analog gain can be set 3 times as high for pixels in red filtered region to balance the output between the two regions. The analysis of images to detect light sources indicated in steps and is described with reference to FIG. Analysis begins with the image in region acquired through the red lens. It is advantageous to begin with the red filtered image because several nuisance light sources do not admit a significant amount of red light.
These nuisance light sources include mercury vapor streetlights, green traffic lights, and reflections off green and blue highway signs. Therefore, a number of potential nuisance light sources are eliminated from consideration. Pixel locations are referred to by X and Y coordinates with the 0, 0 pixel location corresponding to a top left pixel.
Beginning with the 0, 0 pixel and raster scanning through the image, each pixel is compared to a minimum threshold in step The minimum pixel threshold dictates the faintest objects in the image that may be of interest.
If the current pixel is below the pixel threshold and it is not the last pixel in the red image window, as determined in step , analysis proceeds to the next pixel as indicated in step The next pixel location is determined by raster scanning through the image by first incrementing the X coordinate and examining pixels to the right until the last pixel in the row is reached, and then proceeding to the first pixel in the next row.
If it is determined that the current pixel value is greater than the minimum threshold, a seed fill analysis algorithm is entered in which step the size, brightness, and other parameters of the identified light source are determined as indicated in step The seed fill algorithm is used to identify the pixels of the image sensor associated with a common light source, and thus identify associated pixels meeting a pixel criterion. This can be accomplished by identifying contiguous pixels exceeding their respective threshold levels.
Upon completion of the seed fill algorithm, the properties of the light source are added to the light source list in step for later analysis steps and in FIG.
A counter of the number of sources in the list is then incremented as indicated in step The microcontroller then goes to step If it is determined in step that the last pixel in the red image has been examined, the microcontroller determines whether any light sources were detected, as indicated in step If no light source is detected, the analysis of the image terminates as indicated at step If one or more light sources are detected through the red lens , the cyan or clear image window is analyzed to determine the brightness of those light sources as imaged through the other lens , in order to determine the relative color of the light sources.
The first source on the list is analyzed in step A seed fill algorithm is executed in step , with the cyan image starting with the pixel having the same coordinates relative to the upper left of the window as the center of the light source detected in the red image. In this manner, only those pixels identified with a light source viewed through the lens associated with the red filter will be analyzed as viewed through the other filter, which is advantageous, as many nuisance light sources which would otherwise be analyzed when viewed through a clear or cyan filter will be removed by the red filter.
By only considering light sources identified through the red filter, the amount of memory required to store information associated with light sources viewed through the other filter will be reduced. The ratio of the brightness of the source in the red image to the brightness of the source in the other image is stored in the light list, as indicated in step , along with the other parameters computed in step for the current light source.
This procedure continues for other sources in the light list until the red to cyan ratios are computed for all sources in the list , at which point the analysis terminates at step It will be recognized that where it is desirable to count the number of light sources to determine the type of driving environment, and in particular to identify city streets or country roads, it may be desirable to count all of the light sources viewed through the cyan or clear filter.
In this way, nuisance light sources can be counted. Alternatively, the number of light sources viewed through the red filter can be counted for purposes of inhibiting turning ON the high beams if a threshold number of sources are identified. The seed fill algorithm used in steps and is shown in FIG. The outer section of the seed fill algorithm is entered with the current pixel value at step The outer section of the seed fill algorithm is executed only once at each step , while the inner recursive seed fill algorithm is entered many times until all contiguous pixels meeting a pixel criterion are identified.
After the entry step of the outer section of the seed fill algorithm, several variables are initiated as indicated in step These variables will be used to compute the average X and Y coordinates of the pixels imaging a light source, which average coordinates will together correspond to the center of the light source.
This value will define the brightness of the source. The SIZE variable is used to tally the total number of pixels imaging the source. The MAX variable stores the maximum grey scale value of any pixel imaging the source. A CALLS variable is used to limit the number of recursive calls to the recursive inner seed fill function to prevent memory overflow as well as for tracking. The inner seed fill algorithm is first entered in step The start of the inner recursive seed fill function for the first and subsequent calls to the seed fill function is indicated by block The first step in the inner seed fill function is to increment the CALLS variable as indicated in step Next, microcontroller determines if the CALLS variable is greater than the maximum allowable number of recursive calls as determined in step The number of recursive calls is limited by the amount of memory available for storing light source information.
If it is determined that the number of recursive calls exceeds the threshold, the recursive function proceeds to step , wherein the counter is decremented and then returns to the step from which the recursive function was called. Should this occur, a flag is set indicating that the current light source had too many recursive calls, and parameters computed by the seed fill algorithm will be incorrect.
This prevents too many levels of recursion from occurring which would overflow the memory of the microcontroller. If the decision in step is that the CALL variable is not greater than the maximum allowable, the microcontroller next compares the current pixel with a minimum grey scale threshold in step to determine if the pixel is significantly bright to be included in the light source. The threshold considered in step can be constant or vary by position. If it varies, the variable thresholds may be stored in a spatial look-up table having respective pixel thresholds stored for each pixel, or each region of the image sensor.
Where the threshold is variable by position, it is envisioned that where a pixel at one location exceeds its associated pixel threshold, the controller can continue to use that threshold for adjacent pixels while searching for a contiguous group of pixels associated with a single light source, or the controller can continue to use the respective pixel thresholds stored in the spatial look-up table. If the condition in step is not met, this inner recursive seed fill function terminates by advancing to step If the grey scale value of the pixel is greater than any other pixel encountered in the current seed fill, as determined in step , the MAX value is set to this grey scale value Following a no decision in step , the grey scale value of the pixel is set to 0 to prevent further recursive calls from including this pixel.
If a future recursive call occurs at this pixel, and the pixel is not zeroed, the pixel will be added the second time through. By zeroing the pixel, it will not be added again as the pixel's grey scale value is no longer greater than the minimum threshold.
Additionally, this pixel will be ignored in step should it be encountered again while scanning the image during analysis. The inner recursive seed fill algorithm next proceeds to recursively call to itself until it has looked to the right, left, above, and below each pixel until all of the contiguous pixels exceeding the minimum pixel threshold value in decision step are considered. Step represents returning to step for the pixel to the right.
The microcontroller will continue to look at pixels to the right until it reaches a pixel that does not meet the criteria of decision step or Step represents returning to step for the pixel to the left. Step represents returning to step to look at the pixel above. Step represents returning to step to look at the pixel below.
The microcontroller will then look at the pixel to the left of the last pixel that did meet decision step The processor will look at pixels adjacent each pixel exceeding the threshold of step should the neighboring pixels exist i. Returning to the function that called it may be another instance of the inner recursive function, or should this be the initial pixel examined, to the outer recursive algorithm An example of how the inner and outer seed fill algorithms operate will now be described with reference to FIG.
The example is made with respect to an exemplary very small image sensor having 30 pixels. Pixels 4 , 9 , 10 , 11 , 14 , 15 , 16 , 17 , 18 , 21 , 22 , 23 , and 28 exceed the threshold in step in this example. Additionally, the number of calls required does not exceed the threshold in step The image array is impacted by a light source , indicated by contour The microcontroller will operate as follows in evaluating the pixels.
For pixel 1 , the microcontroller will enter the seed fill algorithm at step , initialize the variables in step , and set the current pixel in step The microcontroller will next enter the inner seed fill function in step Because there is no light on the pixel, the minimum threshold is not exceeded and the microcontroller will go to step , decrement the CALLS variable in step , and because this is the first time through the inner seed fill program, the microcontroller will continue to steps - The process will be repeated for pixels 2 and 3 , which are both below the minimum pixel threshold used in step When the microcontroller gets to pixel 4 , it will enter the outer seed fill at step , set the variables to zero in step , set the current pixel to pixel 4 in step , and enter the inner seed fill algorithm.
The grey value for pixel 4 will be the MAX, as it is the only grey value in this outer seed fill. The grey value will be set to zero for pixel 4 in step The microcontroller will then identify all of the contiguous pixels that exceed the threshold set in step In particular, through the inner seed fill routine disclosed in FIG.
Pixel 3 to the left is called next, and it is not added for the same reason. There is no pixel above pixel 4.
Accordingly, the recursive function is next called for pixel 10 in step Pixel 10 will be added as its value is greater than the threshold. The microcontroller will then look to the right of pixel 10 , namely at pixel 11 , which is greater than the threshold, so it will be added.
The microcontroller will then look to the right of pixel 11 , which is pixel Pixel 12 will not be added as its grey scale value is below the threshold. Looking to the left of pixel 11 , pixel 10 will not be added as it was zeroed when it was added previously. Looking above pixel 11 , pixel 5 will not be added. Review by Mellotron Storm Prog Reviewer. I feel the need to mention my buddy Thomas tszirmay who many on here know for his flowery, humerous and well written reviews.
Thomas is one of i'm sure a few on this site who was there when Prog began and has been a faithful fan ever since. This was of course before these guys became somewhat famous in Canada but Thomas tells me both of these guys were into Prog. I was certainly taken back to the eighties everytime I listened to this over the past couple of weeks.
The synths and beat can't help but bring that era to mind but for me it's a good thing because it takes me back to a great time in my life. So lets take a quick look at this charming album from Love the atmosphere to start and the relaxed guitar that joins in. Man this is pure emotion for me. There's some beautiful tension late. I'm not big on the accompanying music but hey that's not what this song is about. A feel good tune for me that is mid-paced. How good is this! The words are about hating school.
Great stuff. Some nice guitar before 4 minutes. This has the album's title in it of course repeated during the chorus. Synths and a beat lead the way before the vocals join in just before a minute. Great track! If you heard this now you would probably be surprised at this.
I would call this proggy as we get narration coming and going throughout describing the whole affair. This includes other people speaking as well. It's about a murder and is very creative to say the least. Very catchy too which is why it was a hit. There is the radio edit and an extended version as part of the bonus tracks. A top three. In any case, the Shames return to the Elbo Room this Saturday night to ply their shoegaze wares.
I've heard rumours that their new EP is slowly turning into a full-length but at the rate they're going they'll be lucky to release anything before one of them spontaneously combusts. Part of a benefit for Naisy Dolar, 50th ward aldermanic candidate. Those of you who work or live downtown and seek a new place to browse away your lunch hour can rejoice; Reckless Records has announced the forthcoming opening of a third store, to be located at 26 E.
Madison, in the heart of downtown! The store's web site says that we can expect to wait 4 to 6 weeks for delivery, but that you should keep bringing in your used CDs, LPs, DVDs, and video games to the current store locations for cash or credit.
Isn't it always a bit weird in a good way to be browsing through a record store's used section, only to bump into a record you used to own - not like another copy, but YOUR old copy! Like bumping into an ex-, but with a laugh, rather than a shudder, of recognition. The struggle of old-school artists of every stripe has been with relevance. Do they push on with making records? Do they bask in the acclaim of yesteryear? Do they just do what they do best? Next Friday will be a display of all three with a show loaded with old-school.
In hip-hop, the names of Doug E. Fresh , Rakim , and KRS-One evoke different reactions to aficionados, but no one can deny their place in the music's history. Part of Miller's nationwide tour for The Craft, a group of musicians who play backup in each event, next Friday's concert at The Vic may be anything from vaguely disappointing to electric, but odds are that the crowd to which those names mean anything will know the words to most everything.
Show details are here. Show-time's supposed to be at ; closer to 9 should be par for the course. Dave Fishoff has got to be wondering where, exactly, the radar is located, because he's been skimming the bottom of it for a while now. After being picked as Spin's Artist of the Day back in December, being written up by PopMatters and even getting some local love from TimeOut Chicago , it looks like he's finally hitting the mainstream by getting picked as a MySpace.
Okay, maybe not. But that's a crying shame, since Fishoff has picked up the blip-pop cause in convincing fashion with The Crawl , the sort of basement recording that makes Ukranian Village basement apartments seem far more appealing than they actually are. Full of samples culled from the Chicago Public Library's sound bank and lush vocal layering, Fischoff has made a strong play towards replacing that one Postal Service song on your go-to first date makeout playlist.
Now we just have to convince you to drop Lady In Red and our work here may finally be done. For the uninitiated, Baltimore house is the reigning booty music of late. Unlike its Chicago cousin, it's fast, gritty, and lewd -- a distinction that's earned it a number of nicknames, perhaps none so telling as "gutter music. And in the D. He made his first Chitown appearance back around Thanksgiving, and this Friday night he'll be back for a return engagement at Spot 6.
His noteriety rests on the relentlessness of his sets; where he blazes through tracks and remixes on the fly, laying a Bawmer ghetto-house beat behind everything from The Cars to Ray Charles to Gnarls Barkley. The Bodymore bounce owes much of its energizing spark to the same style of pitch-shifted, sped-up breakbeats that made classic jungle cuts such a rush back in the day. With some of his recent tracks, Chicago's DJ Zebo splits the difference, tweaking his own old-skool junglist steez by mashing things up with some added gutter kick and remixed soul and hip-hop samples.
He and his SES crew will be at the Spot as well, throwing their own selection of B'more club tracks into the mix. DJ Frankie Banks is also scheduled to spin. I just know our feature today on Chicago performer Bobby Conn has totally piqued your interest in seeing him live, and now, thanks to Chicago label Thrill Jockey , you've got your chance, for free.
The first to email us at inbox at gapersblock. Five other runners-up will get their own copy of the album and an autographed poster too. Email now now now! Congrats to you all! It features some of Birmingham, Alabama's best deep southern soul. On this Valentine's Day, Texas was, indeed, the reason. A double shot of sold out Texas-based pop graced the wooden stage at Schubas last night.
Opener Annie Clark, aka St. Vincent , who expects a full-length out on Beggar's Banquet this spring, exhibited the true anachronism of the phrase "one-man band. Taking cue from Tori Amos in subject matter and Ani DiFranco in guitar attack made Clark's set the perfect anti-Valentine atmosphere as its subject matter covered mulitple songs about murder and relationship trouble.
The loud to soft dynamics of "Now, Now" were perhaps the most abrasive, showcasing Clark's guitar playing as she scattered notes all across the fretboard and used a second, muted mic for call and response that conjured up aural memories of AM static or old phonograph magic. Subdued, tongue-in-cheek "Marry Me John" followed traditional piano-based pop a la Carole King but still kept its jilted approach as the song's narrator implored the matrimonially hesitant John to follow Holy couple Mary and Jospeh's example but "without the kid.
After a brief interval, Denton TX's finest quietly took the gear-strewn stage armed only with their trusty beards and the panther mask featured so prominetly in the artwork from last year's genius LP The Trials of Van Occupanther. The crew from the tucked-away nightspot won't be re-locating to Austin for a week, however they will be celebrating Chicago's journeymen.
On Saturday March 10th, the Hideout will host a 12 hour event featuring 16 bands, in order to raise money for their travels to Texas. The mini-festival is set to kick off at noon on Saturday with entrance on a first come first served basis. Doors will open at am with no tickets available for sale ahead of time! Additions to the band line-up will be announced soon. Check out The Hideout Calendar for updates and show information.
It's been three years since Bobby Conn's last studio release, Homeland , which was born out of contempt and fascination for this country's politics and popular culture. And now he, the Glass Gypsies, and guests from Detholz!
Even just a quick glance at the entirety of the album's artwork can give listeners a good idea of what they're in for throughout this concept album. Twenty-five years ago, a little-known college rock band from Athens, Georgia took the stage at a brand new venue.
Yep, the Metro turns 25 this year, and to celebrate, they're throwing a huge party Well, yeah. It's the music industry's biggest event, so of course they're going to play it up for the people who keep the bands coming. It's also a great opportunity to possibly introduce the world to the possible next R. But don't worry, this is just the beginning of a year-long series of anniversary concerts right here at home — the details of which will be announced at the show — and on the Metro's email list — March If you were in the electronic music tent at the Pitchfork fest this past summer, you might've seen how Matthew Dear got the whole crowd dancing.
When recording under his Audion moniker, Dear keeps things very lean, chilled, and strictly business in the classic Detroit minimal techno style.
But with the two LPs and numerous EPs released under his proper name, he offers a lot more by way of counterpoint; favoring a more melodic, soulful, funkier sound that rests comfortably alongside the efforts of fellow traveller Jamie Lidell. As a DJ, Dear brings a fat satchel to the party. He'll be playing at Sonotheque this Thursday night, mixing up a deep selection of tech-house material. That means lots of skittering hi-hats and four-on-the-floor thump that'll keep dancefloor prerogatives at the top of the agenda, and enough glitchy scribble to make things edgey and interesting.
Admission is ten dollars. Take a collective breath and feel a little older, everyone - It's officially the 15th anniversary of the release of Wayne's World. For those of you who aren't dolled up for the Flosstrapromus , or who have a '76 AMC Pacer and a taste for licorice rope, hop in the car and re-enact one of the most famous sing-a-longs in Chicago and movie history.
Don't forget to visit the Cermak Plaza Spindle! Check out the bling-riddled flyer here and Thunder Horse's nostalgic video flyer below. In addition to their seasonal Tuesdays on the Terrace and the smattering of musical events hosted year-round, Chicago's Museum of Contemporary Art has recently announced a new event, playfully titled The Magical Acoustical Musical Showcase.
The monthly series works directly with some of Chicago's longest running venues Metro, Schuba's, Hideout , asking each to select their favorite singers and songwriters. British DJ and producer Mr. Scruff says that he likes to hit the Windy City every time he's stateside because Chicagoans know how to put a dancefloor to proper use.
Back home, his club dates and radio appearances have made him a top-biller with folks who like their music swinging and funky. His key to success? No pandering to the audience, and no flashy tricks on the decks -- just play great records and the party will fall right into place.
Scruff's three LPs on the Ninjatune label favor a jazzy, playful, downtempo sound. His DJs sets, however, find him cleverly hop-scotching across genres with a crowd-pleasing mix of soul, funk, reggae, house, jazz, afrobeat, and whatever else keeps the vibe tight. He's appearing at Smart Bar this Friday night.
As is his usual preference, he'll be spinning the entire evening, working his way from deep head-nodding grooves up to the high-energy stuff that keeps the place jumping. Tentatively entitled El Che , after his given name Che Smith, the record will be a concept story that Fest hopes to transpose into a stageworthy musical.
Yes, that's right, a musical. Fest's interview is great so check it out here , but meanwhile enjoy this hott Chicago-centric video of "Fever" off of Blue Collar - it will help you fight the blizzard. Richard Buckner warning: terrible website makes his return to Chicago next week to promote his new album Meadow AllMusic link; trust me, it's better this way which is a return to the rock bluster of 's Since.
Buckner may live in New York, but he always seems to kick ass in Chicago, and specifically at Schubas, even going so far as to release the semi-secret Live at Schubas Tavern several years ago to showcase his powerful live show.
Meadow is full of archetypical Buckner moments, a wash of cinematic progressions and sparsely percussive instrumentation that provides just enough context for Buckner's uniquely ragged voice.
Hell, the tracklist itself reads like a poem about driving west: Town. You get the idea. Richard Buckner, Friday Feb. With Six Parts Seven. Link here or view the video below to experience the animated hijinks of a snowy day full of quirky pop goodness.
Saturday night was the kind of cold that shook you to the very bone. Good thing The Shins brought the perfect thaw: an hour of burning pop brilliance.
Standing in the massive line that snaked outside the Congress waiting to get into the sold out venue, I kept hoping the hype I had heard about this tour was for real. The usual live reviews of The Shins I had read were all about how subdued, boring, and similar to their recordings their sets often were.
But a few new blurbs promised an expanded Shins line-up for the Wincing the Night Away tour as well as an improved dynamic sound that was bigger than anything they had done before. After last night's Grammys, it is pretty evident that some peple can perform, but not everyone can really sing. Dianne Reeves can do both. A top talent, she seems to perform in a jazz vacuum. Bereft of much publicity, she nonetheless continues to perfect her craft, managing to show up in a couple of mainstream appearances while keeping credibity in the jazz world.
Ticket details over here.What is Birchbox & how does it work? Birchbox ($15 per month) is a well-known beauty subscription box that sends you a mix of sample-sized items each month. Items can include makeup, skincare, hair products, beauty tools—it’s all based on your preferences.