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2 Oct, 2012

Turing Test - Arne Weinberg - Archives Vol. 1 (File)

The restricted conversation rule was lifted for the Loebner Prize. Interaction duration between judge and entity has varied in Loebner Prizes.

In Loebner , at the University of Surrey, each interrogator was allowed five minutes to interact with an entity, machine or hidden-human. Between and , the interaction time allowed in Loebner Prizes was more than twenty minutes. Saul Traiger argues that there are at least three primary versions of the Turing test, two of which are offered in "Computing Machinery and Intelligence" and one that he describes as the "Standard Interpretation".

Huma Shah points out that Turing himself was concerned with whether a machine could think and was providing a simple method to examine this: through human-machine question-answer sessions. Turing's original article describes a simple party game involving three players. Player A is a man, player B is a woman and player C who plays the role of the interrogator is of either sex.

In the imitation game, player C is unable to see either player A or player B, and can communicate with them only through written notes. By asking questions of player A and player B, player C tries to determine which of the two is the man and which is the woman.

Player A's role is to trick the interrogator into making the wrong decision, while player B attempts to assist the interrogator in making the right one. What will happen when a machine takes the part of A in this game? Will the interrogator decide wrongly as often when the game is played like this as he does when the game is played between a man and a woman?

The second version appeared later in Turing's paper. Similar to the original imitation game test, the role of player A is performed by a computer. However, the role of player B is performed by a man rather than a woman. Let us fix our attention on one particular digital computer C. Is it true that by modifying this computer to have an adequate storage, suitably increasing its speed of action, and providing it with an appropriate programme, C can be made to play satisfactorily the part of A in the imitation game, the part of B being taken by a man?

In this version, both player A the computer and player B are trying to trick the interrogator into making an incorrect decision. Common understanding has it that the purpose of the Turing test is not specifically to determine whether a computer is able to fool an interrogator into believing that it is a human, but rather whether a computer could imitate a human. The role of the interrogator is not to determine which is male and which is female, but which is a computer and which is a human.

There are issues about duration, but the standard interpretation generally considers this limitation as something that should be reasonable. Controversy has arisen over which of the alternative formulations of the test Turing intended. The test that employs the party game and compares frequencies of success is referred to as the "Original Imitation Game Test", whereas the test consisting of a human judge conversing with a human and a machine is referred to as the "Standard Turing Test", noting that Sterrett equates this with the "standard interpretation" rather than the second version of the imitation game.

Sterrett agrees that the standard Turing test STT has the problems that its critics cite but feels that, in contrast, the original imitation game test OIG test so defined is immune to many of them, due to a crucial difference: Unlike the STT, it does not make similarity to human performance the criterion, even though it employs human performance in setting a criterion for machine intelligence.

A man can fail the OIG test, but it is argued that it is a virtue of a test of intelligence that failure indicates a lack of resourcefulness: The OIG test requires the resourcefulness associated with intelligence and not merely "simulation of human conversational behaviour".

The general structure of the OIG test could even be used with non-verbal versions of imitation games. Still other writers [53] have interpreted Turing as proposing that the imitation game itself is the test, without specifying how to take into account Turing's statement that the test that he proposed using the party version of the imitation game is based upon a criterion of comparative frequency of success in that imitation game, rather than a capacity to succeed at one round of the game.

Saygin has suggested that maybe the original game is a way of proposing a less biased experimental design as it hides the participation of the computer.

A crucial piece of any laboratory test is that there should be a control. Turing never makes clear whether the interrogator in his tests is aware that one of the participants is a computer. However, if there were a machine that did have the potential to pass a Turing test, it would be safe to assume a double blind control would be necessary.

To return to the original imitation game, he states only that player A is to be replaced with a machine, not that player C is to be made aware of this replacement. The power and appeal of the Turing test derives from its simplicity. The philosophy of mind , psychology , and modern neuroscience have been unable to provide definitions of "intelligence" and "thinking" that are sufficiently precise and general to be applied to machines.

Without such definitions, the central questions of the philosophy of artificial intelligence cannot be answered. The Turing test, even if imperfect, at least provides something that can actually be measured. As such, it is a pragmatic attempt to answer a difficult philosophical question. The format of the test allows the interrogator to give the machine a wide variety of intellectual tasks.

Turing wrote that "the question and answer method seems to be suitable for introducing almost any one of the fields of human endeavour that we wish to include. To pass a well-designed Turing test, the machine must use natural language , reason , have knowledge and learn. The test can be extended to include video input, as well as a "hatch" through which objects can be passed: this would force the machine to demonstrate skilled use of well designed vision and robotics as well.

Together, these represent almost all of the major problems that artificial intelligence research would like to solve. The Feigenbaum test is designed to take advantage of the broad range of topics available to a Turing test. It is a limited form of Turing's question-answer game which compares the machine against the abilities of experts in specific fields such as literature or chemistry.

Suppose a human who knows no Chinese is locked in a room with a large set of Chinese characters and a manual that shows how to match questions in Chinese with appropriate responses from the set of Chinese characters.

The room has a slot through which Chinese speakers can insert questions in Chinese and another slot through which the human can push out the appropriate responses from the manual. To the Chinese speakers outside, the room has passed the Turing test. However, since the human does not know Chinese and is just following the manual, no actual thinking is happening.

Turing test. Hey, great review! The first time I entered was , so that makes this my 5th entry. At the time I was looking for ways to demonstrate my program without online capabilities, and the Loebner Prize was pretty much the only game in town. In fact, there was a discussion among NLP researchers in the last days about a demo that someone published for recognizing textual entailment given two sentences, can a human reading the first sentence infer that the second is also true?

But now finally some brave researchers published a demo, and it fails miserably on anything that requires even the tiniest inference ability e. So back to my original point, semantics is hard. Pragmatics and world knowledge is even harder. Any advancement in this area is a win! B: Interpreting semantics of a question but ignoring the pragmatics A: Could you give an example? B: Yes, I could. That is an interesting story.

But failing to address both passive and negation would put it at an absolute beginner stage. Not a good plan, let me put it like that. Coincidentally my next post in the works is about sensationalised false breakthroughs in AI history. Or just rote learning of all idioms. Your guess is almost correct. Most recent systems use seq-to-seq architectures. They are too easy to enable any meaningful learning of these linguistic phenomena which I doubt can be learned implictly from text efficiently , so they create the illusion that simple neural nets do well on this task.

Conversely, this Turing test is way too hard for any current technology to pass it perfectly. It enables reflecting on the errors your model makes and attempting to fix them for the next time.

I like the math! Neural networks are innately untransparent and more work should be done on tools to analyse why they produce their results. Summary Description Turing Test Version 1. The computer is tasked with the role of pretending to be a woman, while player B must to attempt to assist the interrogator, who must determine which is male and which is female.

I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby publish it under the following license:. What's more, the test makes it possible to compare the relative intelligence of different agents. Formerly known as the Ikea Challenge, this test is an effort to create a physically embodied version of the Turing Test.

A fundamental weakness of the Turing Test, says Ortiz, is that it focuses on verbal behavior while neglecting two important elements of intelligent behavior: perception and physical action. Computers subjected to the Turing Test, after all, don't have eyes or hands. As Ortiz pointed out to io9, "These are significant limitations: the field of AI has always assigned great importance to the ability to perceive the world and to act upon it. Ortiz's Construction Challenge is a way to overcome this limitation.

Here's how he described it to io In the Construction Challenge, a set of regular competitions will be organized around robots that can build physical structures such as Ikea-like modular furniture or Lego structures. To do this, a robot entrant will have to process verbal instructions or descriptions of artifacts that must be built, manipulate physical components to create the intended structures, perceive the structures at various stages of construction, and answer questions or provide explanations during the construction.

A separate track will look at scenarios involving collaborative construction of such structures with a human agent. Another track will investigate the learning of commonsense knowledge about physical artifacts as a child might through the manipulation of toys, such as Lego blocks, while interacting with a human teacher.

The added benefit of creating such a challenge is that it could foster the development of robots that can succeed in many larger-scale construction tasks, including setting up camps, either on Earth or beyond. Like Ortiz's challenge, the Visual Turing Test is an effort to diminish the natural language bias implicit in Turing's original test.

The latter description is arguably more accurate in these cases; see also the next section. Since Turing test judges are sometimes presented with genuinely human subjects, as a control, it inevitably occurs that a small proportion of such control subjects are judged to be computers. This is considered humorous and often embarrassing for the subject. This situation may be described literally as the human "failing the Turing test", for a computer the intended subject of the test achieving the same result would be described in the same terms as having failed.

The same situation may also be described as the human "failing the reverse Turing test" because to consider the human to be a subject of the test involves reversing the roles of the real and control subjects. When a Turing test is applied to a mixed group of human and computer subjects, the computers are the nominal subjects.

However, the humans are judged in exactly the same way, and so their Turing test scores can also be calculated. The term "reverse Turing test" has also been applied to a Turing test test of humanity that is administered by a computer.

The test Turing proposed for machine intelligence is usually understood to be a test of whether a computer can fool a human into thinking that the computer is a human. This standard interpretation is rejected in favor of a test based on the Imitation Game introduced by Turing at the beginning of "Computing Machinery and Intelligence.".

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9 thoughts on “Turing Test - Arne Weinberg - Archives Vol. 1 (File)”

  1. The Turing test, originally called the imitation game by Alan Turing in , is a test of a machine's ability to exhibit intelligent behaviour equivalent to, or indistinguishable from, that of a human. Turing proposed that a human evaluator would judge natural language conversations between a human and a machine designed to generate human-like responses.
  2. In American philosopher John Searle proposed the “ Chinese room” argument, a powerful rejoinder to the idea that the Turing test can show that a machine could think. Suppose a human who knows no Chinese is locked in a room with a large set of Chinese characters and a manual that shows how to match questions in Chinese with appropriate responses from the set of Chinese characters.
  3. Feb 17,  · The Turing test says as much about us as it does about thinking in machines. What the Turing test actually assesses is the mentalistic abilities of a machine—and especially its ability to lie.
  4. Dec 12,  · In September Arne Weinberg stated it was "time to close the chapter", declaring: "I will not release any new music under my real name anymore", deciding to "stop doing the style of music that I am mostly known for, often described as detroit techno" He remains with 'Onmutu Mechanicks' project and 'Tangula' moniker too.
  5. The article describes and criticizes one interpretation of the Turing test. But that interpretation differs from what Turing actually said. The original paper by Turing didn't claim that this test is either necessary or sufficient for something to be "truly" intelligent. He didn't even consider what consitutes "true" intelligence to be an interesting question.
  6. This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike Unported license.: You are free: to share – to copy, distribute and transmit the work; to remix – to adapt the work; Under the following conditions: attribution – You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in.
  7. Jul 24,  · The original Turing Test wasn’t intended for that, but rather, for deciding whether a machine can be considered to think in a manner indistinguishable from a human - and that, even Turing.
  8. The Turing Test, which is intended to detect human-like intelligence in a machine, is fundamentally flawed. But that doesn't mean it can't be improved or modified. Here are eight proposed.
  9. Full list of all 15 The Turing Test achievements worth 1, gamerscore. It takes around hours to unlock all of the achievements on Xbox One.

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